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mulberry

Nutritional & Herbal Properties

Examples of mulberry’s medicinal properties are reducing blood serum glucose, lowering blood cholesterol and lipids levels, fighting arterial plaques and antiphlogistic, diuretic and expectorant effects. Various compounds present in mulberry that attribute to such therapeutic benefits are GABA, phytosterol, DNJ, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, etc. The nutritional values of 100g dry mulberry leafs are: Ca 2,699mg., Fe 44mg., Na 3.4mg., K 3,101mg., beta carotine 7.4mg., vitamin A 4,230 IU, vitamin B1 0.6mg., vitamin B2 1.4mg., vitamin C 32mg., and fiber 52g.

Mulberry Facts

Mulberry has been cultivated and used for around 5,000 years. There were four main varieties: black, red, white, mountain or wild mulberry. Over centuries, there have been over a hundred varieties and many hundreds more local sub-varieties. Because of its diversity, you can find a mulberry tree in almost any altitudes and climates in the world.

For thousands of year, mulberry trees have been cultivated for silk production because silk worms are fed on mulberry leaves. Often, human beings and animals also appreciate mulberry for its fruits and leaves. The berries are consumed fresh, in juice or preserves (like mulberry jam). Mulberry young leaves and stems are yummy vegetable. It also has medicinal properties in infusions such as mulberry leaf tea. Not until the past few decades, scientists started to pay great attention to the medicinal and nutritional qualities of mulberry plants.

There have been researches studying the components and benefits of mulberry leaves for human and animal consumption and pharmaceutical purposes. Studies found that mulberry leaves contain 15%-28% of protein, with essential amino acids, depending on varieties. Studies find that the leaves and young stems are high in mineral content and have no anti-nutritional factors or toxic compounds. Mulberry leaves have typical calcium content around 1.8-2.4% and phosphorus 0.14-0.24%. The values of potassium in leaves are 1.90-2.87% and 1.33-1.53% in young stems, and magnesium 0.47-0.63% and 0.26-0.35% in leaves and stems respectively. Indian scientists have suggested the use of the powdered of white mulberry leaves as a nutritious ingredient for paratha, one kind of Indian breads. In Korea, Japan and Thailand, mulberry fruit and leaves are used as functional food such as ice-cream and noodles, containing powdered mulberry leaves as an ingredient.

The use of the mulberry-leaf powder in ice-cream showed reducing of blood glucose level in consumers, instead of rising. Hence, mulberry-leaf powder could be used in a food item that contains a sugar content in order to maintain the blood sugar level. Reducing the blood serum glucose is only one of the healthy properties of mulberry mentioned in several traditional herbal books like the ‘Shin Nou Honzou Gyou’ (the Chinese original academic herbal book) ‘Kissa Youjouki’ written by Eisai Zen Monk in Japan, and the old Latins and folk medicine scripts.

Indigenous medicinal practitioners, for centuries, have used different parts of mulberry plant for treating diseases and symptoms such as high-blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and lipids levels, arterial plaques, diuresis, diabetes, constipation, cough-phlegm, cold, anemia, etc. Scientific researches have confirmed these healing qualities of mulberry plant. Several clinical studies found that mulberry leaf contains GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid), phytosterol, DNJ (Dioxiogirimycin), vitamins and minerals. GABA helps maintain the normal blood pressure. Phytosterol helps reduce cholesterol in blood vessels. DNJ helps reduce sugar in the blood stream: lowers the risk of getting heart disease. DNJ also stimulates the blood circulation and increases the fluid in the body.

A 5-year research conducted in Kanagawa, Japan found that mulberry leaves have various preventive effects on adult diseases. Some of the effects are:

  • Suppressing hypertension
  • Lowering cholesterol level
  • Preventing cancer (liver)
  • Reducing level of blood sugar
  • Suppressing mutagenesis of carcinogens.
Nutritional Value of Mulberry
  • Carbohydrate (in the form of sugars, mainly glucose and fructose) – 7.8 to 9.2%
  • Protein (with essential amino acids) – 15% to 28%
  • Fatty acids like linoleic, stearic, and oleic acids – 0.4 to0.5%
  • Malic acid, producing sour taste – 1.1 to1.9%
  • Fiber – 0.9 to1.4%
  • Calcium – 1.8 to 2.4%
  • Phosphorus – 0.14 to 0.24%
  • Potassium – 1.90 to 2.87% in leaves, 1.33 to1.53% in young stems
  • Magnesium – 0.47 to 0.63% in leaves, 0.26 to 0.35% in young stems
Health & Nutrition Benefits of Eating Mulberry
  • Mulberry can balance internal secretions and enhance immunity. It promotes proper body fluid production. People suffering from body fluid deficiency could take ten grams of mulberry daily with water.
  • Mulberry is useful for the persons who use their eyes a lot during work. Regular consumption of mulberry strengthens eyesight.
  • Presence of nutritious elements like minerals and vitamins in mulberry helps in curing chronic diseases.
  • Mulberry is helpful for proper gastric juice secretion.
  • Regular use of Mulberry enhances appetite, and also improves the ability for digesting and assimilating.
  • Mulberry could be used to fight problems like chronic gastritis and chronic hepatitis.
  • Regular consumption of mulberry juice would be helpful in curing health problems like anemia, pallor, dizziness, heart-palpitations and insomnia.
  • Persons with graying hair can also get benefited by regular intake of Mulberry. Mulberry juice applied directly on head also promotes healthy growth of hair and blackening.
  • Nutritious value of Mulberry enriches the blood and in the process, soothes the nerves.
  • Mulberry could be helpful in promoting the metabolism of alcohol.
  • Mulberry helps in containing hypertension.
  • Regular intake of Mulberry strengthens body parts like liver and kidney.
  • Mulberry is helpful in treating constipation.
  • Mulberry is instrumental in eliminating abdominal distention.
  • Intake of mulberry juice after any surgery is restorative.
  • Mulberry is helpful in recuperating after long-time sickness.
  • Consumption of Mulberry after childbirth is good for women’s health.
  • Use of Mulberry keeps low cholesterol level in the body.
  • Mulberry can suppress mutagenesis of carcinogens.
  • Regular use of Mulberry prevents cancer of liver.
  • Mulberry is helpful in reducing level of blood sugar.

Mulberry leaf powder contains full spectrium chemicals activities in pharmaceutical applications:

Ace-inhibitor activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-) epigallocatechin, afzelin, amentoflavone, astragalin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, zinc.

Aldose-reductase-inhibitor activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, 6-(pentadecyl)-salicylic-acid, acacetin, amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, astragalin, daucosterol, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, luteolin, p-coumaric-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, vanillic-acid.

Antihiv activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, opcs, procyanidin, quercetin, tannin.

Antiacne activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, anacardic-acid, beta-carotene, linoleic-acid, pufa, selenium, thymol, zinc.

Antiaging activity:
apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, bilobalide, chromium,
quercetin.

Antialzheimeran activity:
choline, quercetin, thiamin, zinc.

Antianginal activity:
magnesium, niacin.

Antianxiety activity:
calcium, magnesium, tryptophan.

Antiarrhythmic activity:
apigenin, ginkgolide-b, magnesium, potassium, protocatechuic-acid, quercitrin.

Antiarteriosclerotic activity:
histidine, linoleic-acid, silicon.

Antiarthritic activity:
ascorbic-acid, copper, linoleic-acid, magnesium, pantothenic-acid, quercetin, thymol.

Antiasthmatic activity:
ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolide-c, ginkgolides, magnesium, opcs, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,

Antiatherogenic activity:
luteolin, opcs, rutin.

Antiatherosclerotic activity:
ascorbic-acid, calcium, chromium, citric-acid, lutein, magnesium, malic-acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin,
thymol.

Antibiotic activity:
cysteine, opcs, procyanidin, prodelphinidin.

Anticancer activity:
alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, butyric-acid, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, rutin, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Anticancer (lung) activity:
alpha-carotene, apigenin, beta-sitosterol.

Anticarcinogenic activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, luteolin.

Anticarcinomic (breast) activity:
quercetin

Anticataract activity:
ascorbic-acid, cysteine, luteolin, methionine, quercetin, quercitrin, riboflavin, rutin, zinc.

Anticoagulant activity:
(+)-catechin, citric-acid, d-catechin.

Anticoronary activity:
beta-carotene, linoleic-acid, magnesium, selenium, zinc.

Antidepressant activity:
ascorbic-acid, calcium, magnesium, phenylalanine, potassium,
quercetin, tryptophan.

Antidiabetic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, choline, chromium, copper, fiber, fructose, glucomannan, magnesium, manganese, pinitol, quercetin, rutin, xylose, zinc.

Antiedemic activity:
amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, ginkgetin, glucose, opcs, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin, quercitrin,
rutin, sciadopitysin.

Antiestrogenic activity:
apigenin, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, quercetin.

Antifatigue activity:
pantothenic-acid, potassium, thiamin, vanillic-acid.

Antiflu activity:
ergosterol, p-cymene, quercetin, quercitrin.

Antiglaucomic activity:
ascorbic-acid, magnesium, rutin.

Antihepatotoxic activity:
ascorbic-acid, glucose, p-coumaric-acid, protocatechuic-acid,
quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, stigmasterol, tannin.

Antiinflammatory activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, copper, ginkgetin, ginkgolides, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin,
kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, magnesium, mufa, myricetin, oleic-acid, opcs, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,
quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside, quercitrin, rutin, sciadopitysin,
stigmasterol, thymol, vanillic-acid.

Antileukemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, astragalin, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, kaempferol, luteolin, p-coumaric-acid, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, selenium, vanillic-acid.

Antimelanomic activity:
apigenin, beta-ionone, luteolin, quercetin, rutin, selenium, thymol.

Antimigraine activity:
ascorbic-acid, magnesium, riboflavin, thiamin, tryptophan.

Antimutagenic activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, acacetin, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-eudesmol, beta-sitosterol, citric-acid, kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, nonacosane, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin,
tannin.

Antiobesity activity:
ascorbic-acid, chromium, fiber, opcs, zinc.

Antioxidant activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, alanine, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, bilobalide, bilobetin, campesterol, cysteine, gamma-tocopherol, ginkgetin, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolide-c, ginkgolide-j, ginkgolides, histidine, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol,
lauric-acid, lutein, luteolin, methionine, myricetin, myristic-acid, opcs, p-coumaric-acid, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, palmitic-acid, proanthocyanidins, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, sciadopitysin, selenium, shikimic-acid,
stigmasterol, sucrose, tannin, thymol, tryptophan, vanillic-acid.

Antiparkinsonian activity:
ascorbic-acid, methionine, niacin, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine.

Antiprostaglandin activity:
(+)-catechin, anacardic-acid, beta-sitosterol, ginkgoic-acid,
ginkgolic-acid, tryptophan.

Antirheumatic activity:
thymol, tryptophan, zinc.

Antisickling activity:
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic-acid,asparagine, glycine, homoserine, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, phenylalanine, vanillic-acid.

Antispasmodic activity:
apigenin, daucosterol, ginkgetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-rhamnoglucoside, luteolin, niacin, p-coumaric-acid, potassium, protocatechuic-acid,quercetin, quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside, quercitrin, rutin,shikimic-acid, thymol, valerianic-acid.

Antistress activity:
apigenin, beta-carotene, gamma-aminobutyric-acid.

Antistroke activity:
magnesium, proanthocyanidins.

Antithrombotic activity:
anacardic-acid, bilobol, cardanol, ginkgolides.

Antitumor activity:
anacardic-acid, apigenin, beta-carotene, beta-ionone, bilobol,
butyric-acid, citric-acid, cysteine, daucosterol, fiber, ginkgoic-acid, ginkgolic-acid, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, luteolin, malic-acid, p-coumaric-acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, selenium, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Antitumor (breast) activity:
apigenin, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, lutein, quercetin, selenium, zeaxanthin.

Antitumor (colon) activity:
beta-carotene, lutein, luteolin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin.

Antitumor (lung) activity:
apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, quercetin, selenium.

Antitumor (skin) activity:
apigenin, luteolin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,

Antitumor (brain) activity:
luteolin, selenium.

Antitumor-promoter activity:
isoquercitrin, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Antiulcer activity:
(+)-catechin, amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-eudesmol cysteine, elemol, fiber, ginkgolide-b, glycine,
histidine, kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, tannin, threonine, tyrosine, zinc.

Antiviral activity:
(-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, bilobetin, ergosterol, ginkgetin, kaempferol, lauric-acid, luteolin, myricetin, nonacosane, opcs, p-cymene, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, stigmasterol, tannin.

Anxiolytic activity:
apigenin, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, glutamic-acid.

Cancer-preventive activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alanine, alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-ionone, beta-sitosterol, cysteine, d-catechin, fiber, glycine, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, methionine, mufa, myricetin, myristic-acid, niacin, oleic-acid, opcs, p-coumaric-acid, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, pantothenic-acid,
quercetin, quercitrin, riboflavin, rutin, selenium, serine, shikimic-acid, stigmasterol, succinic-acid, tannin, tyrosine, vanillic-acid.

Cardiotonic activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, d-catechin, quercitrin.

Cosmetic activity:
behenic-acid, myristic-acid, stearic-acid.

Estrogenic activity:
apigenin, beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, stigmasterol.

Hepatoprotective activity:
(+)-catechin, acacetin, beta-eudesmol, beta-sitosterol, choline, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, methionine, niacin, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin, tannin, zeaxanthin.

Hypocholesterolemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, beta-ionone, beta-sitosterol, calcium, campesterol, chromium, copper, fiber, ginkgoic-acid, glucomannan, linoleic-acid, luteolin, magnesium, mufa, oleic-acid, rutin, stearic-acid, stigmasterol.

Hypotensive activity:
alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, astragalin, calcium, choline, chromium, fiber, gamma-aminobutyric-acid,
isoquercitrin, kaempferol, magnesium, quercitrin, rutin, tryptophan, zinc.

Hypoglycemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, chromium, daucosterol, manganese, myricetin, niacin, quercetin, quercitrin, tryptophan.

Immunostimulant activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, ascorbic-acid,
astragali, beta-carotene, phosphoru, protocatechuic-acid, selenium, zinc.

Insulinogenic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, chromium, magnesium, quercetin, zinc.

Inotropic activity:
apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin.

Neuroprotective activity:
bilobalide, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolides, kaempferol, quercetin.

Pituitary-stimulant activity:
arginine

Roborant activity:
aspartic-acid

Sunscreen activity:
apigenin, opcs, rutin.

Vasodilator activity:
(-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, arginine, ascorbic-acid, calcium, fiber, ginkgetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, magnesium, myricetin, niacin,potassium,
proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin.

Sedative activity:
apigenin, beta-eudesmol, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, niacin,
p-cymene, stigmasterol, thymol, tryptophan.
N.B. If you are the author of this article just feel free to write me so that I can quote you or make your website as reference.

Sapan

Folkloric
Decoction of wood and bark used for tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, postpartum tonic, skin infections. and anemia.
Seeds used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.
Decoction of wood used postpartum as tonic.

Others
Chiefly used as a dyewood, popular for coloring native fabrics.
In some parts of the Quezon province, a popular colorant for the coconut liquer, lambanog.

Studies
Antimicrobial: Aqueous extract study showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA) as well MRSA and suggests a potential to restore the effectiveness of B-lactam antibiotics against MRSA.
Immunosuppressive component: Brazilein, an important immunosuppressive component of CS showed inhibition of T cell proliferation and suppress mice humoral immune response.
Antioxidant: Study results showed significant antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extracts.
Anticonvulsant: Study of aqueous MeOH extracts isolated pure compounds sappanchalcone and brazilin which showed remarkable anticonvulsant activity.
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors: Study of MeOH extract of Vietnamese CS isolated neoprotosappanin and protosappanin A dimethyl acetal which showed xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity comparable to allopurinol.
Anti-allergic: Study of extracts of CS showed potent inhibitory activity against B-hexosaminidase release as marker of degranulation in rat basophilic leukemic cells. Among the compounds tested, sappanchalcone showed the most potent anti-allergic effect.
Cardioactive effects of Brazilein: Brazilein obtained from CS ethanol extracts showed a positive inotropic action with little effect on heart rate and coronary perfusion, an effect achieved through inhibition of Na-K-ATPase system.

Suggested Readings

(1) Inhibitory effects of Caesalpinia sappan on growth and invasion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 91, Issue 1, March 2004, Pages 81-87 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.11.017
(2) Brazilein, an important immunosuppressive component from Caesalpinia sappan L. / International Immunopharmacology
Vol 6, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 426-432 / doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2005.09.012
(3) Antioxidant Activity of Caesalpinia sappan Heartwood / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 26 (2003) , No. 11 1534
(4) Anticonvulsant compounds from the wood of Caesalpinia sappan L. / Archives of Pharmacal Research. Vol 23, Number 4 / August, 2000 / DOI 10.1007/BF02975445
(5) Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors from the Heartwood of Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan / Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 53 (2005) , No. 8 984
(6) Anti-allergic activity of principles from the roots and heartwood of caesalpinia sappan on antigen-induced -hexosaminidase release / Phytotherapy Research
(7) Study on Cardioactive Effects of Brazilein /

Excerpts from other source:

General Uses: The water kept in Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Sappan lignum) heartwood is being used in some parts of Kerala as herbal drinking water for its antithirst, blood purifying, antidiabetic, improvement of complexion and several other properties. The use of heartwood as a colouring agent for liquor, wine, meat, fabric, etc. is well established. It has the potential to hit the market as a safe natural colouring agent with good medicinal value for food products, beverages and pharmaceuticals. Sappan is official in India and the Eastern Colonies for use in place of logwood as an astringent. Seeds used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.

Medicinal Uses: Used for purifying blood, quenching thirst, cures jaundice and cough. Good for respiratory ailments, cures wound. As it has medicinal properties similar to Pterocarpus Santalinus it is used in place of this. Its flower is used as a base in fairness creams. It has a capacity to cure Blood Pressure, Heart diseases. The seeds of the plant are used for Stomach aches, and Nervous disorders. This plant is used as a main ingredient in Herbal drinks, widely used in Kerala, and other parts of the country. Indications for treatment include amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, blood stasis after delivery; pricking pain in the chest and abdomen, traumatic swelling and pain. Decoction of wood and bark used for tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, postpartum tonic, and for skin infections.

General Uses: The water kept in Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Sappan lignum) heartwood is being used in some parts of Kerala as herbal drinking water for its antithirst, blood purifying, antidiabetic, improvement of complexion and several other properties. The use of heartwood as a colouring agent for liquor, wine, meat, fabric, etc. is well established. It has the potential to hit the market as a safe natural colouring agent with good medicinal value for food products, beverages and pharmaceuticals. Sappan is official in India and the Eastern Colonies for use in place of logwood as an astringent. Seeds used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.

Medicinal Uses: Used for purifying blood, quenching thirst, cures jaundice and cough. Good for respiratory ailments, cures wound. As it has medicinal properties similar to Pterocarpus Santalinus it is used in place of this. Its flower is used as a base in fairness creams. It has a capacity to cure Blood Pressure, Heart diseases. The seeds of the plant are used for Stomach aches, and Nervous disorders. This plant is used as a main ingredient in Herbal drinks, widely used in Kerala, and other parts of the country. Indications for treatment include amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, blood stasis after delivery; pricking pain in the chest and abdomen, traumatic swelling and pain. Decoction of wood and bark used for tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, postpartum tonic, and for skin infections.

Here’s a couple gems culled from the inbox chaff:

“Caesalpinia sappan, known as Sibukaw Tree, treats hepatitis problems. It also includes diabetes.”

Excerpt from reply or comment re sibukaw:

“with regards to sibukaw tree, it grow near our city and is sold by local streetside herbalist as a remedy to build blood. a decoction of the wood pieces are used. my friend told me that it cured a filipino doctor who came home from the u.s. because he was dying of cancer.”

Main sources:

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Sapan.html
http://www.freewebs.com/mhmgs/sappanwood.html

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