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sweetbasil

Chemical constituents and properties
• The dried leaves contain 0.21–1% essential oil, the major compounds of which are linalool and methyclaviol.
• Some of the other compounds are: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-cymene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, methyl cinnamate, myrcene, quercetin, rutin, tryptophan, safrole.
• Study yielded 14 different anthocyanins: 11 cyanidin-based pigments and 3 peonidin-based pigments.
• Carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, expectorant, febrifuge, diuretic, demulcent, mucilaginous, cooling.

Parts utilized
Leaves, seeds.

Mature fresh leaves are harvested 2 to 3 months after planting. Leaves are picked leaving the branches on the plant to allow it to flower and produce seeds for the next season.

The leaves are air-dried until they crumble when crushed with the fingers. Store in amber colored bottles in a cool, dry place.

Uses
Culinary
The leafy and flowering tops are used as condiment; eaten sparingly in salads.
Folkloric
Cough: Expectorant properties – Take infusion or decoction of herb (9-15 gm of dried herb) or tops as tea.
Leaf juice helpful for expectoration of mucus.
Decoction of leaves also used for hiccups, vomiting and nausea.
Gas pains: Decoction of herb as tea helps to expel wind from bowels.
Snake bites: Crush fresh plant and poultice the bitten wound.
Gonorrhea, using a decoction of the roots and leaves of plants.
Decoction of leaves used as a wash for ulcers.
External contusions.
Used in baths for rheumatic pains.
Ringworm and insect bites: Apply juice of crushed leaves.
Skin ulcers: Decoction of herb as wash.
For delayed menstruation: take the juice of the leaves with water.
Seeds are used in treatment of several eye diseases.
Toothache: Wet small piece of cotton with juice of crushed leaves and insert into tooth cavity.
Postpartum: Decoction of seeds used to decrease postpartum pains; the seeds are mucilaginous.
Poultice of seeds used for buccal sores.
Decoction of seeds also used for constipation.
Acne: Infusion of 3 tsp of dried leaves in 1 cup of boiling water for 20-30 minutes. Apply externally or drink decoction of tea or infusion 3 times daily.
Others
• Oils repel insects (limonene, myrcene, camphor, thymol) and have larvicidal (eugenol and methylclaviol) activity against houseflies and mosquitoes.


Recent uses

Dizziness: crush enough fresh leaves with your fingers and sniff them.
Cough: As decoction boil eight tablespoons of fresh leaves in two glasses of water for 15 minutes or until the liquid is reduced to half. Divide the decoction into eight parts and take one part, three times a day.

Studies
• Aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) decrease platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin in vitro and rats arterio–venous shunt thrombosis in vivo: Results showed Ocimum basilicum to possess an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin resulting in an anti-thrombotic effect in vivo.
Cardiac stimulant activity of Ocimum basilicum Linn. extracts: The study evaluated the cardiac effects of extracts derived from the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum. Results showed the alcoholic extracts exhibited a cardiotonic effect and the aqueous extract produced a B-adrenergic effect.
Antimicrobial Effects of Ocimum basilicum (Labiatae) Extract: Results suggest that O. basilicum extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties against C. albicans and some bacterial pathogens.
Anti-dyspepsia: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled study showed Ocimum basilicum seems to relieve functional dyspepsia in female and young patients with dysmotility.
Anthocyanins in Basil : Purple basils are an abundant source of acylated and glycosylated anthocyanins, a potential source of stable red pigments to the food industry.
Antioxidant: In a study of plants in the Lamiaceae family, the leaves and stems of Ocimum basilicum displayed the highest antioxidant activity.
Antiulcer: Study showed the seed extracts of OB to possess significant anti-ulcer activity against ethanol-induced ulceration in animal models.
Wound-Healing Activity: Wounds treated with honey in combination with OB alcoholic leaf extract and solcoseryl-jelly showed accelerated wound healing compared to honey alone.
• Antiproliferative / Anticancer: A study on the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from 17 thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcioma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines. In the KB cell line, Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil showed the highest anti-proliferative activity in the P388 cell line. The results suggested the potential of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment.

Toxicity
Although known for its medicinal benefits, it contains some potentially dangerous compounds: safrole, rutin, caffeic acid, tryptophan and quercetin.(See: Medicinal Plants for Livestock / Cornell University)

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Balanoy.html

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Ibaibaan

Chemical constituents and properties
Considered abortifacient, ecbolic, febrifuge.
Contains alkaloids, tannins.

Parts utilized
· Part utilized: entire plant.
· Collect from May to October.
· Rinse, half-dry under the sunlight, compress, then continue drying under shade.

Uses
Folkloric
· Infantile convulsions, hepatitis, jaundice.
· Nephritic edema, urinary infection and lithiasis.
· Enteritis-diarrhea, dysentery,
· Reddening and swelling pains of the eye.
· Dosage: use 15 to 30 gms of dried material or 30 to 60 gms of fresh material in decoction.
· In Ayurveda, used to treat jaundice, dysentery, diabetes, skin ulcers, itching.
Studies
A study reports that Phyllanthus may inhibit some pro-inflammatory enzymes with a potential use as antiinflammatory for rheumatic ailments.
• Study suggests that P. urinaria and P. niruri may be helpful in Hepatitis B and in malaria.
Acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria inhibit HSV-2 infection in vitro:
Study showed the extracts likely inhibited HSV-2 infection by decreasing virus infectivity and disturbing the early stage of infection

Hippomanin A from Acetone Extract of Phyllanthus urinaria inhibited HSV-2 but not HSV-1 Infection In Vitro: Results shows hippomanin A impeded HSV-2 but not HSV1..
Antioxidative and Cardioprotective Effects of Phyllanthus urinaria L. on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity:
Study showed the PU may be an alternative antioxidant for the prevention of DOX cardiotoxicity.
• Phenolic Antioxidants from the Whole Plant of Phyllanthus urinaria:
Study demonstrated considerable radical-scavenging activity, isolating 15 phenolic compounds, including ellagitannins, flavonoids and simple glycosylated aromatic acids.

Source: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Ibaibaan.html

skin

Many people want to treat skin conditions naturally, without having to resort to prescription medications. Read on to get the tips to banish blemishes and put your best face forward—naturally.

All-Natural Tips to Get Rid of Acne
Commonly called pimples and zits, and universally disdained by teenagers and adults alike, acne occurs when skin follicles get blocked by oil or sebum that normally drains to the surface of the skin. The sebum blockage allows bacteria and yeast to grow, causing the skin to become inflamed and the acne to eventually rupture.

Here are my favorite home remedies for acne:
• A cucumber-aloe mask can quickly cool the heat of inflammation. Put one fresh cucumber in a blender, mix with 2 tablespoon of aloe gel, and apply to your skin. Leave on for twenty minutes and then wash off with cool water.

• Drink an all-greens juice. Make tea by boiling one bunch each of fresh dandelion greens, carrot tops, and beet leaves in 7 cups of water for 20 minutes. Strain into a jar and drink 3 cups every day.

• Just a spoonful of honey! Each morning, drink 12 ounces of lukewarm water with 1 tablespoon of honey on an empty stomach. This lubricates the intestines. When you don’t empty the intestines regularly, toxins end up in either the liver or show up on the skin.

• Try tea tree oil, which when applied to acne, may help eliminate bacteria and reduce inflammation. Tea tree oil contains a compound called terpinen-4-ol that is responsible for its antimicrobial activity. Make a tea tree oil solution by mixing 1 part tea tree oil to 19 parts water; use this as a skin cleanser. Oregano oil, which is antimicrobial, can also be used in this manner.

Avoid picking and touching your face, stress, and using chemical cosmetic, skin, and hair care products. Also, medications such as birth control pills, steroids, and psychotropic drugs can trigger or worsen acne.

Natural Treatments for Psoriasis
Upwards of 6 million Americans are affected by this common skin condition. It is a symptom of a faulty skin cell regeneration mechanism. While normal skin cells take up to a month to mature, in patients with psoriasis this process is shortened to 5-7 days, producing excessive skin cells that cause the skin to thicken in raised red areas with silvery scales. Painful oozing lesions may appear and flaking and itching are common. Western medicine relies on steroidal creams, tar cream with UV light treatment, antibiotics, or immunosuppressants for relief.

Natural treatments for psoriasis:
• Soak in sulfur baths or hot spring regularly to help with skin healing. No nearby sulfur baths? Try taking a warm Epsom salt bath.

• Water chestnut paste. Peel and slice 15 water chestnuts and slowly simmer in a non-metal pot with 1 cup of rice vinegar. Allow 20 minutes for the chestnuts to absorb the vinegar. Remove from heat and let cool, drain excess vinegar, and mash the chestnuts into paste. Store in a sealed glass jar. Once a day, apply this paste with a loofa sponge and lightly scrub to thin out the thick patches of skin.

• Milk thistle stops the breakdown of substances that contribute to psoriasis and it protects the liver. Other herbs helpful for psoriasis include yellowdock, sarsaparilla, and calendula. Take as tea or supplement.

• Relieve itching with tonic oil. Mix 10 drops of tonic oil (wintergreen, eucalyptus, and menthol) with fresh aloe gel and apply liberally and frequently.

Avoid exposure to extreme temperature changes and too much sunlight with strong UVA rays. Keep your skin moist and avoid dehydration and constipation. Alcohol, nicotine and caffeine are irritants and can worsen psoriasis. Stress, anxiety and emotional upsets are notorious for initiating flare-ups of psoriasis.

Remedies for Redness
Rosacea is a chronic skin problem that reddens the forehead, nose, cheek, and sometimes the chin. Scientists believe there may be a genetic predisposition to the condition, and some recent research suggests that mites that naturally occur on human skin are more abundant in people with rosacea. Western medicine offerings include antibiotics, creams, and light therapy involving broad spectrum pulsed-light. In my treatment of rosacea, I focus on soothing the spirit, clearing heat, and using natural remedies to remove skin blockages.

Natural remedies for rosacea:
• Create a cucumber mask. Peel the skin off of a fresh cucumber and puree the insides in a blender with one egg white. Coat your face with this mixture, leave on for 30 minutes, and then wash off with cool water. Use this mask daily and you should see improvement within a month.

• Make chamomile tea and soak into clean soft gauze; then place gauze on red area. Change the application every 15 minutes, twice per day.

• A flax fix. Take one tablespoon flax seed oil or fish oil daily. Another option? Top your salads with it as dressing. • Herbal Therapy. Burdock, yellow dock, red clover and cleavers are often used to relieve symptoms of rosacea. I often recommend to my patients with skin conditions our Exquisite Skin Chinese herbal formula to help support healthy skin functions and reduce itching.

Avoid exposure to extreme temperature changes, excessive use of cosmetics, creams, and abrasive skin cleansers. Exposure to sunlight UVA rays can trigger an outbreak. Alcohol, smoking and caffeine are irritants and generate heat that contributes to flare ups. Stress, anxiety and emotional upsets are also notorious triggers.

Skincare Extra Credit

It cannot be overstated that what you put on your face can directly contribute to these kinds of skin conditions. Why not put only the best on your face? Opt for all-natural makeup, moisturizers, and cleansers. I highly recommend the Lamas skincare line and our age-defying rejuvenation cream.

What you eat eventually ends up in your skin. Many of our foods today have chemical and artificial ingredients that can cause allergic reactions and irritate your immune system. Keep a diary of your meals, and be more aware of your physical and emotional reactions to the food you eat. It won’t take long to discover if you have food allergies that worsen your skin conditions.

I hope these natural recipes will remedy and beautify your skin! I invite you to visit often and share your own personal health and longevity tips with me.

–Dr. Mao

Source: http://health.yahoo.com/experts/drmao/19455/natural-remedies-for-skin-break-outs/;_ylt=AncE6wwLA48nq6hKxWmRTz91kIV4

neemtree

Chemical constituents and properties
• From the seed is produced a bitter fixed oil, nimbidin, known as “Oil of Margosa” or neem oil.
• Neem seeds yield a fix oil of glycerides and bitter compounds including nimbin, nimbinin and nimbidol.
• Neem bark and leaves contain tannin and oil.
• Azadirachtin, the insecticide constitutent of the seeds, is biodegradable, non-mutagenic, and nontoxic to birds, fish, and warm-blooded animals. The EPA has approved a neem formulation (Margosan-O) as a pesticide for limited use on nonfood crops
• Antiinflammatory (nimbidin, sodium nimbidate, gallic acid, catechin, polysachharides).
• Antiarthritic, hypoglycemic, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, diuretic, anti-gastric ulcer (nimbidin)
• Antifungal (nimbidin, gedunin, cyclic trisulfide)
• Antibacterial (nimbidin, nimbolide, mahmoodin, margolone, margolonone, isomargolonone)
• Spermicidal (nimbin, nimbidin)
• Antimalarial (nimbolidfe, gedunin, azadirachtin)
• Antitumor (polysaccharides)
• Immunomodulatory (NB-II peptoglycan, gallic acid, epicatechin, catechin)
• Hepatoprotective (aequeous extract of neem leaf)
• Antioxidant (neem seed extract)

Parts used and preparation
Whole plant.
.
Uses
Folkloric
Poultice of leaves for swollen glands, brusies and sprains.
Fresh leaf-tea used for malaria.
Tree and root barks have been used for malaria, jaundice, and for intestinal parasitism.
Edible pulp of the fruit used for hemorrhoids.
Ayurvedic medicine
Leaf- leprosy, intestinal parasites, eye problems, skin ulcers
Bark – pain and fever.
Flower – bile suppression, intestinal worms and phlegm.
Fruit – piles, intestinal worms, urinary disorder, nose bleeding , phlegm, eye problem, diabetes, wounds and leprosy.
Twig – cough, asthma, piles, intestinal worms, spermatorrhoea, urinary disorders, diabetes.
Gum – ringworms,scabies, wounds and ulcers.
Seed pulp and oil- leprosy and intestinal worms.
Others
Young tender branches are chewed for toothbrushing use.
Leaf’s oil is used as a local antiseptic and insecticide.
Neem oil may be useful for gingivitis.
In the rural areas, burning of leaves and seeds used as mosquito repellant.
Neem oil has been shown to possess some spermicidal and contraceptive properties when used intravaginally.
Use of neem oil in animals showed lowering of glucose
Commercial use
Neem extracts used in the manufacture of toothpaste for its antibacterial properties.
Fresh seed oil has a strong garlic odor and is an ingredient for insect sprays.

Studies
• Studies have suggested hypoglycemic, antiulcer, antifertility, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer and antioxidant effects.
• Effect of essential oils from two Nigerian medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida) on growth and aflatoxin B1 production in maize grain by a toxigenic Aspergillus flavus: Oils from A indica completely suppressed aflatoxin synthesis.
Lipid Effects / Antiviral: Effect of Supplemental Garlic and Neem Leaves in Broiler Feeds on Blood Cholesterol, Triglycerids and Antibody Titer: Study showed neem had greater potential than garlic in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides and increasing the antibody titers against viruses.
Anti-ulcer: Mechanism of antiulcer effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract: effect on H+-K+-ATPase, oxidative damage and apoptosis: Study suggests antiulcer activity is achieved by blocking acid secretionn through inhibition of H+K+ATPase and preventing oxidative damage and apoptosis.
Anti-candidal: Anticandidal activity of Azadirachta indica: Study suggested hexane and alcoholic extracts to have anticandidal potential.

Source: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Neem.html

Related Sites:

http://www.discoverneem.com/neem-benefits.html
http://www.articlealley.com/article_766808_17.html
http://herbal-properties.suite101.com/article.cfm/research_supports_value_of_neem_herbal_extracts
http://www.healthypages.co.uk/newsitem.php?news=6070
http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/42953
http://www.goherbalremedies.com/blog/herbal-remedies-by-neem-leaves-margosa/
http://www.neemfoundation.org/neem-articles/neem-in-health.html

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