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patchouli

Botany
Aromatic, erect, branched and hairy herb, growing to a height of 0.5 to 1 meter. Leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate, 5 to 11 cm long, with coarse and doubly-toothed margins, a blunt or pointed tip. Flowers are pinkish-purple, crowded and borne in hairy, terminal, axillary spikes, 2 to 8 cm long, 1 cm in diameter, with a corolla 9mm long with obtuse lobes.

Chemical constituents and properties
Leaves yield a volatile oil, 6-10% – Patchouli alcohol, cadinene, coerulein, benzaldehyde and eugenol.
Diuretic, carminative, stimulant, emmenagogue.
The oil may have antibactericidal activity and pogostone may have antibacterial and antifungal activities.
Components eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde have insecticidal activity.
Important components of the essential oil are patchoulol and norpatchoulenol.
Study on the chemical constituents of an essential oil of PC yielded 22 compounds, 18 sesquiterpenes and three oxygenated sesquiterpenes; among these, patchouli alcohol was the major component, followed by germacrene.

Parts used and preparation
Leaves, flowering spikes, roots.

Uses
Folkloric
Arthritis and rheumatism: Crush leaves and apply on affected part.
Infusion of fresh leaves for painful menses.
Infusion of leaves, dried tops or roots used for scanty urination.
In Malaysia and Japan, has been used as antidote for venomous snake and insect bites.
In traditional Chinese medicine, used for colds, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain.
Patchouly oil
Essential oil of patchouli used in perfumes and cosmetics.
Also called: Huo xiang, Putcha-Pat.
Oil also used as ingredient in foods and beverages.
An ingredient of East Asian incense.
Had a surge in the commerce of oil and incense during the free love and hippie decades of the 60s and 70s.
Others
Leaves and tops used as insecticide repellant for cockroaches, moths, ants, etc.
Leaves used with gogo for washing hair.
In some countries, used as ingredient in tobacco smoking.
Juice of leaves used to repel leeches in climbing mountains.
Used as hair conditioner for dreadlocks.

Studies
ROS-scavenger: Pogostemon cablin as ROS Scavenger in Oxidant-induced Cell Death of Human Neuroglioma Cells: Study suggests the beneficial effects of PC on ROS-induced neuroglial cell injury possibly as a ROS-scavenger.
Antimutagenic: Antimutagenic Activity of Flavonoids from Pogostemon cablin: Study of methanol extraxct of P cablin showed suppressive effects against furylfuramide, Trp-P-1, and activated Trp-P-1. Test isolated suppressive compounds (7,4′-di-O-methyleriodictyol among others) plus three flavonoids, mobuine, pachypodol and kumatekenin.
Mosquito Repellent Activity: Study of the mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants against Aedes aegypti on human subjects showed the undiluted oil of patchouli, together with citronella, clove and makaen, to be effected in providing 2 hr of complete repellency.
H Influenza Adhesion Inhibition: Study has shown inhibition of H Influenza on oropharyngeal cells to be inhibited by aqueous extracts of P cablin and A rugosa; a mixture also effective in preventing otitis media and sore throat.
Anti-Platelet Aggregation: Study isolated a-bulnesene, a sesquiterpened from the water extract of P cablin. It showed a potent and concentration-dependent effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF) and arachidonic acid (AA) induced rabbit platelet aggregation; a first study demonstrating a-blnesene as a PAF-receptor antagonist and anti-platelet aggregation agent.

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kabling.html

Health Benefits of Patchouli Essential Oil

The health benefits of Patchouli Essential Oil can be attributed to its properties like anti depressant, anti phlogistic, anti septic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, febrifuge, fungicide, insecticide, sedative and tonic.

Essential Oil of Patchouli is extracted by steam distillation of leaves of Patchouli, whose botanical name is Pogostemon Cablin or Pogostemon Patchouli. The basic components of Patchouli Essential Oil are Alpha Patchoulene, Beta Patchoulene, Alpha Guaiene, Alpha Bulnesene, Caryophyllene, Norpatchoulenol, Patchouli Alcohol, Seychellene and Pogostol. The insecticidal and insect repellant properties of this oil were known from a long time ago and were particularly used in protecting clothes from insects. Then later on, its other benefits were discovered.

Its medicinal properties include;

  • Anti Depressant: This oil works great on people suffering from depression. It helps them to get over from the feeling and fills them with new hopes. That is why it is very much in use in aromatherapy. It uplifts mood, drives away disappointment and relaxes tension.
  • Anti Phlogistic: It soothes inflammation, particularly those resulting from fever and gives relief.
  • Anti Septic: Protects the wounds and ulcers from infections and from being septic.
  • Aphrodisiac: Patchouli Oil is also good for treating sexual problems such as impotency, loss of libido and interest in sex, erectile problems, frigidity etc. and acts as an aphrodisiac.
  • Astringent: It induces contractions in muscles, nerves and skin. This helps strengthening hold of gums on teeth, preventing shagging of skin, hair fall and loosening of muscles. This astringency of Patchouli Oil also helps stop haemorrhage by contracting the blood vessels.
  • Cicatrisant: It helps heal cuts and wounds and also speed up the fading of their scars. This is equally effective in vanishing marks left by boils, acne, pox, measles etc.
  • Cytophylactic: This property of the Essential Oil of Patchouli promotes growth by helping generation of new body cells. This helps in production of red blood cells too. It was seen mainly helpful in regeneration of new skin cells, thus keeping the skin healthy, young and vibrant.
  • Deodorant: The strong sweet, spicy and musky aroma of this essential oil keeps away body odor. But it should be used in dilution as sometimes the aroma of Patchouli Oil might feel too strong to bear.
  • Diuretic: It increases the tendency of urinating as well as the frequency of urination and quantity of urine. This helps loose weight, lower blood pressure, increase appetite, lower cholesterol and removal of toxins from the body.
  • Febrifuge: Reduces body temperature in case of fever by fighting the infections causing the fever. Being an Anti Phlogistic, it gives relief from the inflammations caused by fever and this way too helps bringing down the fever, since fever can be reduced to some extent if the pain and inflammation associated with fever are taken care of.
  • Fungicide: Patchouli Essential Oil has been found quite effective in inhibiting fungal growths and infections, thereby providing protection from some of the notorious infections like athlete’s foot.
  • Insecticide: As said earlier, the insecticidal property of Patchouli Oil was recognized long ago. Despite smelling sweet, it is very effective in keeping insects away. It may be used in sprays, body lotions, fumigants, vaporizers, incense sticks or can be mixed with water to wash clothes and bed linen to drive away mosquitoes, ants, beg bugs, lice, fleas, flies and moths.
  • Sedative: It calms down inflammations and sedates convulsions, coughs and epileptic attacks resulting from hype sensitivity or hyper reactivity of nerves. It can also stop eruption of allergies by sedating the hyper sensitivity of body towards certain elements.
  • Tonic: This property of Patchouli Oil tones up the whole body. It makes right the metabolic functions like decomposition of food and absorption of nutrients by toning up the liver, stomach and intestines, helping you grow stronger and healthier; takes care of proper excretion; regulates the endocrinal secretions of hormones and enzymes and also tones up the nervous system, thus making you more alert and active, and finally, boosts the immune system, protecting you from infections.
  • Other Benefits: Helps treat eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis and sores. Gives relief from constipation. Can be used as an antidote against insect bites temporarily.

Few Words of Caution: The long lasting aroma of Patchouli Essential Oil, though sweet, may not be welcome for a few.

Blending: Patchouli Essential Oil blends well with essential oils of Bergamot, Clary Sage, Geranium, Lavender and Myrrh.

This article was contributed by Aparup Mukherjee

http://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/health-benefits-of-patchouli-essential-oil.html

See also:

http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/784699/the_health_benefits_of_patchouli.html?cat=5
http://www.ehow.com/facts_4868081_uses-patchouli-oil.html
http://www.articlesbase.com/alternative-medicine-articles/patchouli-essential-oil-a-great-way-to-relax-1086472.html
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/patchouli-rediscover-the-peace-oil.html
http://wapedia.mobi/en/Patchouli
http://www.gardenology.org/wiki/Patchouli

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sweetbasil

Chemical constituents and properties
• The dried leaves contain 0.21–1% essential oil, the major compounds of which are linalool and methyclaviol.
• Some of the other compounds are: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-cymene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, methyl cinnamate, myrcene, quercetin, rutin, tryptophan, safrole.
• Study yielded 14 different anthocyanins: 11 cyanidin-based pigments and 3 peonidin-based pigments.
• Carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, expectorant, febrifuge, diuretic, demulcent, mucilaginous, cooling.

Parts utilized
Leaves, seeds.

Mature fresh leaves are harvested 2 to 3 months after planting. Leaves are picked leaving the branches on the plant to allow it to flower and produce seeds for the next season.

The leaves are air-dried until they crumble when crushed with the fingers. Store in amber colored bottles in a cool, dry place.

Uses
Culinary
The leafy and flowering tops are used as condiment; eaten sparingly in salads.
Folkloric
Cough: Expectorant properties – Take infusion or decoction of herb (9-15 gm of dried herb) or tops as tea.
Leaf juice helpful for expectoration of mucus.
Decoction of leaves also used for hiccups, vomiting and nausea.
Gas pains: Decoction of herb as tea helps to expel wind from bowels.
Snake bites: Crush fresh plant and poultice the bitten wound.
Gonorrhea, using a decoction of the roots and leaves of plants.
Decoction of leaves used as a wash for ulcers.
External contusions.
Used in baths for rheumatic pains.
Ringworm and insect bites: Apply juice of crushed leaves.
Skin ulcers: Decoction of herb as wash.
For delayed menstruation: take the juice of the leaves with water.
Seeds are used in treatment of several eye diseases.
Toothache: Wet small piece of cotton with juice of crushed leaves and insert into tooth cavity.
Postpartum: Decoction of seeds used to decrease postpartum pains; the seeds are mucilaginous.
Poultice of seeds used for buccal sores.
Decoction of seeds also used for constipation.
Acne: Infusion of 3 tsp of dried leaves in 1 cup of boiling water for 20-30 minutes. Apply externally or drink decoction of tea or infusion 3 times daily.
Others
• Oils repel insects (limonene, myrcene, camphor, thymol) and have larvicidal (eugenol and methylclaviol) activity against houseflies and mosquitoes.


Recent uses

Dizziness: crush enough fresh leaves with your fingers and sniff them.
Cough: As decoction boil eight tablespoons of fresh leaves in two glasses of water for 15 minutes or until the liquid is reduced to half. Divide the decoction into eight parts and take one part, three times a day.

Studies
• Aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) decrease platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin in vitro and rats arterio–venous shunt thrombosis in vivo: Results showed Ocimum basilicum to possess an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin resulting in an anti-thrombotic effect in vivo.
Cardiac stimulant activity of Ocimum basilicum Linn. extracts: The study evaluated the cardiac effects of extracts derived from the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum. Results showed the alcoholic extracts exhibited a cardiotonic effect and the aqueous extract produced a B-adrenergic effect.
Antimicrobial Effects of Ocimum basilicum (Labiatae) Extract: Results suggest that O. basilicum extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties against C. albicans and some bacterial pathogens.
Anti-dyspepsia: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled study showed Ocimum basilicum seems to relieve functional dyspepsia in female and young patients with dysmotility.
Anthocyanins in Basil : Purple basils are an abundant source of acylated and glycosylated anthocyanins, a potential source of stable red pigments to the food industry.
Antioxidant: In a study of plants in the Lamiaceae family, the leaves and stems of Ocimum basilicum displayed the highest antioxidant activity.
Antiulcer: Study showed the seed extracts of OB to possess significant anti-ulcer activity against ethanol-induced ulceration in animal models.
Wound-Healing Activity: Wounds treated with honey in combination with OB alcoholic leaf extract and solcoseryl-jelly showed accelerated wound healing compared to honey alone.
• Antiproliferative / Anticancer: A study on the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from 17 thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcioma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines. In the KB cell line, Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil showed the highest anti-proliferative activity in the P388 cell line. The results suggested the potential of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment.

Toxicity
Although known for its medicinal benefits, it contains some potentially dangerous compounds: safrole, rutin, caffeic acid, tryptophan and quercetin.(See: Medicinal Plants for Livestock / Cornell University)

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Balanoy.html

pigeonpea

Chemical constituents and properties
Roots are considered antihelminthic, expectorant, febrifuge, sedative, vulnerary.
Seeds are rich in carbohydrates (58%) and proteins (19%).
Fair source of calcium and iron; good source of vitamin B.
Chemical studies reveal: 2′-2’methylcajanone, 2′-hydroxygenistein, isoflavones, cajanin, cahanones, among many others.

Parts used and preparation
Leaves, roots.

Uses
Folkloric
Decoction or infusionn of leaves for coughs, diarrhea, abdominal pains.
Tender leaves are chewed for aphthous stomatitis and spongy gums.
Pulped or poulticed leaves used for sores.
In Peru, leaves are used as an infusion for anemial, hepatitis, diabetes, urinary infections and yellow fever.
In Argentina, leaves used for genital and skin problems; flowers used for bronchitis, cough and pneumonia.
In China, as vermifuge, vulnerary; for tumors.
In Panama, used for treatment of diabetes (See study below).
In Indian folk medicine, used for a variety of liver disorders.
Nutrition
Used mainly for its edible young pods and seeds.
Others
Vegetable food crop ( seeds and pods) in South-East Asia.
As forage or hay.
Branches and stems for basket and fuel. (Source)

Studies
• Clinical studies have reported seed extracts to inhibit red blood cell sickling and potential benefit for people with sickle cell anemia.
Antiplasmodial constituents of Cajanus cajan: Study shows compounds from roots and leaves of CC showed moderately high in vitro activity against Plasmodium falcifarum strain.
Hypocholesterolemic Effect: Study on the stilbenes containing extract-fraction of CC showed a hypocholesterolemic effect possibly through enhancement of hepatic LDL-receptor and cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase expression levels and bile acid synthesis.
Evaluation of traditional medicine: effects of Cajanus cajan L. and of Cassia fistula L. on carbohydrate metabolism in mice: Contradicting its traditional use for diabetes, CC did not have a hypo effect on sugar, aand at higher doses produced a hyperglycemic effect.
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial effect of leaf extracts of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp.) on some human pathogens : Study shows the plants extract to be inhibitory to some bacterial pathogens.
• Antimicrobial / Antifungal: Nigerian study on the antimicrobial effects of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of locally available plants, including C cajan, showerd inhibition against S aureus, P aeruginosa, E coli and C albicans. The extracts of C cajam produced wider zones of inhibition against C albicans.
• Hyperglycemic Effect: Study of the aqueous extract of C cajan leaves showed a hyperglycemic effect, suggesting a usefulness incontrolling hypoglycemia that may be due to excess of insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs.
• Hepatoprotective: Study of the methanol-aqueous fraction of C cajan leaf extract showed it could prevent the chronically treated alcohol induced rat liver damage and presents a promise as a non-toxic herb for therapeutic use in alcohol-induced liver dysfunction.

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kadios.html

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Nutritional Value of Pigeon Pea (Red Gram, Toor, Congo Pea, Gunga Pea)
Pigeon Pea commonly known as Red Gram, Toor, Congo pea or Gunga Pea is yellow colored legume. It is cooked and used as food in day to day life.

Nutrition Facts and Information about Pigeon Pea: Pigeon Pea is rich is potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. It has good amount of iron and selenium and small amount of zinc, copper and manganese.

Vitamin Content of Pigeon Pea: Pigeon Pea has good amount of Vitamin A, Niacin and small amount of thiamin, riboflavin, Vitamin B6, folate and pantothenic acid.

Calorie Content of Pigeon Pea: 100g of Pigeon Pea has 343 calories. Calories from fat are 12.

Health Benefits of Pigeon Pea: Pigeon Pea cures cough, poisoning effect, gas troubles, acidity, stomach pain and piles. It makes a balanced human food, quells swelling of internal organs and with water it cures intoxicating effects.

http://www.organicfacts.net/nutrition-facts/pulses/nutritional-value-of-cowpea-and-pigeon-pea.html

peacockflower

Parts utilized
Roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and bark.

Uses
Folkloric
Decoction of roots used for fevers.
Infusion of the bark used as wash for the teeth and gums.
Infusion of leaves used for colds, fevers, skin ailments and purging.
Reported to be abortifacient.
Decoction of leaves used as mouth wash and gargle for mouth ulcers.
Decoction of flowers used for erysipelas and inflammation of the eyes.
Powdered flowers used as insecticide.
Fruit is astringent and used for diarrhea and dysentery.
In the Amazon, leaf juice used for fevers; the flower juice for sores.
Seeds used for cough, chest pains, breathing difficulty.
Roots used to induce first trimester abortion.
Leaves are purgative; used for renal stones, malaria, bronchitis.
In Ayurvedic medicine, used for fever, jaundice, colic, flatulence, malignant tumors.
In Nicaragua, astringent infusion of the bark is used as a wash for teeth and gums.
In the West Indies, decoction used for fevers.
In the Antilles, the leaves are used as emmenagogue and abortifacient.
In Jamaica, plant is used as a purgative.

Studies
• Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Euphorbia hirta and Asystasia gangeticum: Studies on the ethanolic extracts of the dry fruits of C. pulcherrima showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against E. coli (enteropathogen), Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
• In vitro antiviral activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its related flavonoids: A study showed a potential for use in the treatment of infection caused by two viruses: herpesviruses and adenoviruses.
• Anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima: The study supports the use of Caesalpinia pulcherrima for the treatment of inflammtory conditions in traditional medicine.
• Furanoid Diterpenes / Antibacterial / Antifungal : Study isolated four new cassane-type furanoditerpenoids from the leaves of CP. Antimicrobial testing showed activity against bacteria (S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa and B subtilis) and fungia ( C albicans and T mentagrophytes).
• Nutrient studies of CP Seeds: Study suggests C pulcherrima could be a good source of low cost plant protein, a good source of iron and calcium; the whole seeds more nutrient-rich than the seed nuts.
• Flavonoids / Antiinflammatory: Study isolated five flavonoids from CP which significantly and dose-dependently inhibited inflammatory mediators, NO, cytokines (TNF and IL-12).
• Antifungal: Study of methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants showed C pulcherrima with good antifungal activity against C albicans.

Source: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Bulaklak.html

awatawa-gatasgatas

Amazing Plant.

Filipino Term: Tawa-tawa
Gatas gatas

Other name: Euphorbia hirta
Ingles Snake weed

The new generation
The research of Snake weed has found new interest for gatas-gatas (tawa-tawa) for its use in dengue, with increasing anecdotal reports of “cures.”
Decoction preparation: four grasp of gatas-gatas plants. Rinse. Put the
tawa-tawa into a pot of boiling water for one minute. Cool and Drink 1 to 1 1/2 glasses, every hour for 24 hours.

Posted by Philippine Herbal’s at 8:01 PM

Source: http://mountainherbs.blogspot.com/2009/05/dengue.html

Parts used and preparation
Entire plant.

Uses
Folkloric
Called gatas-gatas because of the healing property of the milky juice.
Juice used for colics.
Juice used as ophthalmic drops for conjunctivitis or ulceration of the cornea.
Infusion or tea of the plant, 4 glasses daily, for bronchits and labored breathing, asthma, chronic dysentery.
Used for boils and wounds.
Decoction of dry plant used for skin disease.
Decoction of fresh plant used as gargle for the treatment of thrusth.
Decoction of the root used to allay vomiting, chronic diarrheas, and fevers.
Root decoction also beneficial for nursing mothers deficient in milk: 4-5 glasses of tea.
The same root decoction as an enema for constipation.
Root used for snake bites.
Used in sores, wounds, boils. As ear drop for pustular swellings in the ear.
Asthma: Make into cigarette or burn and inhale smoke.
Superficial bleeding: Crush leaves and apply on affected paret, as local hemostatic.
In Africa and Australia, used to treat hypertension and edema.
Plant decoction: 25 gms of the whole plant to a pint of boiling water; boil for 3-4 minutes; drink 3-5 glasses a day. Externally as needed.

Recent interests from the folk medicine grapevine
Dengue
• A flurry of queries and web blogs, gatas-gatas has found new interest for gatas-gatas (tawa-tawa) for its use in dengue, with increasing anecdotal reports of “cures.”
• Decoction preparation: Cut roots off 5 to 6 gatas-gatas plants. Rinse. Put the tawa-tawa into a pot of boiling water for one minute. Cool. Drink the decoction, 1 to 1 1/2 glasses, every hour for 24 hours.

Studies
• Antibacterial Activities And Toxicological Potentials Of Crude Ethanolic Extracts Of Euphorbia hirta: The study showed the ethanolic extract to inhibit the growth of test isolates except Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial effect was attributed to the presence of alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids which have been shown to have antibacterial properties. The results supports its use in traditional medicine.
Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts increase urine output and electrolytes in rats: Studty suggests that the active components in the water extract of E. hirta leaf had similar diuretic effect as that of acetazolamide. The results validate its traditional use as a diuretic.
Inhibition of early and late phase allergic reactions by Euphorbia hirta L: Study demonstrated that E. hirta possessed significant activity to prevent early and late phase allergic reactions.
Anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn in Nigerian dogs: Extract of E. hirta Study reduced the fecal egg count of the helminths and suggests a potential as an anthelmintic agent.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibiting and anti-dipsogenic activities of Euphorbia hirta extracts: Study showed the extract from leaves and stems inhibited the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).
Euphorbia hirta reverses chronic stress-induced anxiety and mediates its action through the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine: Study showed E. hirta as a potential anxiolytic drub beneficial for stress-induced anxiety disorders.
Antidiarrhoeic activity of Euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active flavonoid constituent: A flavonoid, quercitin, with antidiarrheic activity was isolated.

Source: http://www.stuartxchange.org/GatasGatas.html

Useful Links:

http://www.denguecure.com/index.php?page=tawa-tawa-tea

http://library.pchrd.dost.gov.ph/index.php/health-news/593/1948-deadly-dengue-prevention-treatment-and-tawa-tawa

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070714221224AA2IwF3

http://curezone.com/forums/fm.asp?i=858625

http://medicalchronicles.blogspot.com/2009/06/tawa-tawa-grass-best-remedy-against.html

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