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Cacao is the seed of a fruit of an Amazonian tree that was brought to Central America during or before the time of the Olmecs. Cacao beans were so revered by the Mayans and Aztecs that they used them as money. Montezuma, the famous Aztec emperor, had his vaults filled not with gold but with about 960,000,000 raw cacao beans.

In 1753 Carl von Linnaeus, the 18th-century Swedish scientist, thought that cacao was so important that he named the genus and species of this tree Theobroma cacao, which literally means “cacao, the food of the gods.”

Cacao beans contain no sugar and between 12% and 50% fat depending on variety and growth conditions. There is no evidence to implicate cacao bean consumption with obesity.

Sulfur and Magnesium

Cacao is remarkably rich in sulfur and magnesium.

It seems to be the #1 source of magnesium of any food. This is likely the primary reason women crave chocolate during the menstrual period.

Magnesium balances brain chemistry, builds strong bones, and is associated with more happiness. Magnesium is the most deficient major mineral on the Standard American Diet (SAD); over 80% of Americans are chronically deficient in Magnesium.

Cacao is high in the beauty mineral sulfur. Sulfur builds strong nails, hair, beautiful, shiny skin, detoxifies the liver, and supports healthy pancreas functioning. Anecdotal reports indicate that cacao detoxifies mercury because it is so high sulfur.

Stimulant or Superfood?

Cacao contains subtle amounts of caffeine and theobromine. However, experiments have shown that these stimulants are far different when consumed raw than cooked.

Consider the following: Experimental provings of chocolate by Homeopaths indicate its stimulating effect when cooked. One experiment conducted with a decoction of roasted ground cacao beans in boiling water produced an excitement of the nervous system similar to that caused by black coffee, an excited state of circulation, and an accelerated pulse. Interestingly, when the same decoction was made with raw, unroasted beans neither effect was noticeable, leading the provers to conclude that the physiological changes were caused by aromatic substances released during roasting.

MAO Inhibitors

Cacao seems to diminish appetite, probably due to its monoamine oxidase enzyme inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) – these are different from digestiveenzyme inhibitors found in most nuts and seeds. These rare MAO inhibitors actually produce favorable results when consumed by allowing more serotonin and other neurotransmitters to circulate in the brain. MAO inhibitors facilitate youthening and rejuvenation.

Phenylethylamine (PEA)

Phenylethylamine (PEA) is found in chocolate. PEA is an adrenal-relatedchemical that is also created within the brain and released when we are in love. This is one of the reasons why love and chocolate have a deep correlation. PEA also plays a role in increasing focus and alertness.

Anandamide (The Bliss Chemical)

A neurotransmitter called anandamide, has been isolated in cacao. Anandamide is also produced naturally in the brain. Anandamide is known as “The Bliss Chemical” because it is released while we are feeling great. Cacao contains enzyme inhibitors that decrease our bodies’ ability to breakdown anandamide. This means that natural anandamide and/or cacaoanandamide may stick around longer, making us feel good longer, when we eat cacao.

Antioxidants

According to research cited in The New York Times, fresh cacao beans are super-rich in antioxidant flavonols. Cacao beans contain 10,000 milligrams (10 grams) per 100 grams of flavonol antioxidants. This is a whopping 10% antioxidant concentration level! This makes cacao one of the richest sources of antioxidants of any food. Compare the cacao bean to processed cocoa powder (defatted, roasted cacao treated with potassium carbonate) and chocolates which range in flavonol content from the more common concentration of 500 milligrams per 100 grams in normal chocolate bars to 5,000 milligrams in Mars Corporation’s special Cocoapro cocoa powder. Research has demonstrated that the antioxidants in cacao are highly stable and easily available to human metabolism. Cornell University food scientists found that cocoa powder has nearly twice the antioxidants of red wine and up to three times what is found in green tea. Their findings were published in an article entitled “Cocoa has more Phenolic Phytochemicals and a higher Antioxidant Capacity than Teas and Red Wine,” found in the American Chemical Society’s Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, a peer-reviewed publication. Scientists have known that cocoa contains significant antioxidants, but no one knew just how rich they were compared with those in red wine and green tea. The Cornell researchers, led by Chang Y. Lee, chairman of the Department of Food Science and Technology at Cornell University’s New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, N.Y., say the reason that cocoa leads the other drinks is its high content of antioxidant compounds called phenolic phytochemicals, or flavonoids. They discovered 611 milligrams of the phenolic compound gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and 564 milligrams of the flavonoid epicatechin equivalents (ECE) in a single serving of cocoa. Examining a glass of red wine, the researchers found 340 milligrams of GAE and 163 milligrams of ECE. In a cup of green tea, they found 165 milligrams of GAE and 47 milligrams of ECE. Antioxidant ORAC levels per 100 grams:

broccoli – 890
alfalfa sprouts – 930
plums – 949
brussel sprouts – 980
raspberries – 1220
spinach – 1260
strawberries – 1540
kale – 1,770
blackberries – 2036
blueberries – 2,400
raisins – 2,830
prunes – 5,770
dark chocolate – 13,120

The ORAC test examines the antioxidant levels of various foods. The higher the ORAC score, the higher the level of antioxidants present in the food. Source: US Department of Agriculture / Journal of the American Chemical Society

Cacao and dark chocolate boost antioxidants; however, the addition of dairy products/milk cancels out the effects of antioxidants. Studies indicate that dairy products specifically block the absorption of all the great antioxidants in chocolate.

Other facts on Raw Cacao beans

  • Raw Cacao is the latest Raw Super Food available on the market today.
  • It is a true super food unlike anything that has come before.
  • As already previously discussed, it is the highest known source of anti-oxidants by a factor of almost 5.
  • It has nearly 20 times the antioxidant levels of red wine and up to 30 times what is found in green tea.
  • In nature, the primary source of Magnesium is cacao (raw chocolate beans).

Raw chocolate is known to have the following properties:

  • Diminishes appetite and aids in weight loss.
  • · Increases sensuality and beauty.
  • · Helps to heal and open the heart.
  • · Nourishes the intellect and attracts prosperity.

The flavor of Raw Cacao is similar to dark, bitter chocolate one would normally buy at a store. It is great just eaten plain, with honey, or in your favorite smoothi. (or blend Cacao Beans with Coconut Oil, Almond Butter and Honey – totally divine).

One of the main differences between raw cacao and the chocolate typically available on the open market (cocoa—a processed substance) is that raw cacao has all the original healthy cacao butter, containing all the original essential fatty acids and amazing taste originally found in the bean. Raw cacao or chocolate should not be confused with other substances such as coco (coconut), kola (a nut whose flavor is used in soft drinks), or coca (the leaf of the plant from which cocaine is derived). Cocoa and cocoa butter are cooked, processed substances derived from raw cacao nibs (orbeans/nuts). All chocolate starts out as raw cacao beans (or nuts —they are actually the seed of the cacao fruit which grows on a tropical tree). Processing, cooking and roasting corrupt the delicate, complex flavor of the cacao nib (bean without the skin). Raw cacao is one of the most, if not the most, nutrient rich and complex foods known to man.

http://www.uncleharrys.com/infobase/product/cacao_beans.php

Picture: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Cocoa_Pods.JPG/240px-Cocoa_Pods.JPG

gingerThere is a wide range of benefits of ginger such as nausea, digestive problems, circulation and arthritis. Nausea caused during pregnancy or by travelling is one of the benefits of ginger root. Ginger is also known to have the ability to calm an upset stomach and to promote the flow of bile. Stomach cramps can be eased and circulation can also be improved. Ginger supports a healthy cardiovascular system by making platelets less sticky which in turn reduces circulatory problems.

Ginger oil used for massage can help relieve painful arthritis due to its anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is often included in many herbal decongestants and can help to minimise the symptoms of respiratory conditions, colds and allergies.

With all the benefits of ginger and continuing research, the ginger root is fast becoming a very popular medicinal herb.

Other useful and detailed source on ginger:

  • Stomach: Ginger root and ginger oil is often used for stomach upsets. It is one of the best remedies for indigestion, stomach ache, dyspepsia, colic, spasms, diarrhea, flatulence and other stomach and bowel related problems. Ginger or ginger oil is often added in numerous food preparations, especially in India, as it helps in improving digestion. Ginger tea is also used for relieving stomach problems. Further, it increases the appetite of a person.
  • Food poisoning: Ginger is antiseptic and carminative. As a result, it can be used for treating food poisoning. It is also used for treating intestinal infections and bacterial dysentery.
  • Nausea and Vomiting: Research has proved that ginger root and its oil is also effective against nausea, motion sickness and vomiting. Usage of ginger may result in reduction in pregnancy related vomiting as well in women.
  • Heart: It is strongly believed in China that ginger boosts and strengthens your heart. Many people use ginger oil as a measure to prevent as well as cure heart diseases. Preliminary research has indicated that ginger may be helpful in reduction of cholesterol levels and prevention of blood clotting. With reduced cholesterol levels and blood clotting the chances of blockage of blood vessels decrease thereby reducing incidences of heart strokes.
  • Respiratory: Since ginger root and ginger oil is a good expectorant, it is effective in various respiratory problems such as cold, cough, flu, asthma, bronchitis and breathlessness. Ginger is very effective in removing mucus from the throats and lungs and hence it is often added with tea in India. The health benefit of honey and ginger in treating respiratory problems is well known.
  • Inflammation and Pain: Extract of ginger is often used in traditional medicine to reduce inflammation. Research has now proved that its anti-inflammatory properties can be attributed to the presence of the substance named Zingibain. It is analgesic in nature and reduces pain caused by muscle aches, arthritis, rheumatisms, headache, migraine, etc. Ginger oil or paste of ginger is often massaged on aching muscles to remove muscle strain. It is further believed that regular use of ginger leads to reduction of prostaglandins which are the compounds associated with pain. Hence ginger helps in pain relief. Recently a few Chinese researchers have reported that ginger is effective for treating inflammation of the testicles.
  • Menstrual Problems: Irregular and painful menstrual discharges can be treated with ginger.
  • Malaria: Ginger root and ginger oil is also effective against yellow fever and malaria.
  • Stress: Ginger oil, being an essential oil is stimulating and therefore relives depression, mental stress, exhaustion, dizziness, restlessness and anxiety.
  • Impotency: Ginger is helpful for men’s health as well. Since ginger root and its oil are aphrodisiac in nature, it is effective in removing impotency and treating premature ejaculation.
  • Kidney: It is also believed that ginger root juice is able to dissolve kidney stones.
  • Hair: Ginger is useful for hair care as well. Usage of the juice of ginger is useful in controlling dandruff.
  • Cancer: According to the American Cancer Society, preliminary research on animals has shown that ginger may be useful in treating cancer through chemotherapy.

It should be noted that ginger oil is very strong and therefore it should be used carefully.

dandelion5227

Nutritional
Used by some as salad component.
A rich source of vitamins A, B, C and D as well as minerals.

Folkloric
• Its multiplicity of uses rates it a herbal cure-all, especially for the treating hepato-biliary disease and as a diuretic.
• in Europe, widely used for gastrointestinal ailments. It is taken as broth with leaves of sorrel and egg yolk for chronic liver congestion.
• Used for its gently laxative effect and as bitter tonic in atonic dyspepsia.
• Promotes appetite and digestion.
• Root preparation used for a variety of conditions: fevers, diabetes, eczema, scurvy, bowel inflammation.
• Pounded poultice of leaves applied to wounds and cuts.
• As a drink: 20 gms of root to a cup of boiling water, take 3-5 glasses a day.
• Juice of the stalk used to remove warts.
• Powdered dried roots used with coffee, and a substitute for coffee when roasted and powdered.
• Extract of dandelion used as remedy for fevers and chills.
• Infusion used to treat anemia, jaundice and nervousness.
• Decoction of root herb taken for scrofula, eczema, scurvy and various skin eruptions.
• Used for eczema and acne.
• Native American Indians have used infusions and decoctions of the root and herb for kidney diseases, dyspepsia and heartburn.
• Traditional Arabian medicine has used it for liver and spleen diseases.
• Chinese medicine used it for hepatitis,bronchitis, pneumonia, as a topical compress for mastitis.

Excerpts from other source:

Dandelion Herbal use and Medicinal Properties

The whole plant is used as a medicinal herb internally and externally.

External Uses

The fresh juice of Dandelion is applied externally to fight bacteria and help heal wounds. The plant has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphococcus aureus, pneumococci, meningococci, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, C. diphtheriae, proteus. The latex contained in the plant sap can be used to remove corns and warts.

Internal Uses

Dandelion is also used for the treatment of the gall bladder, kidney and urinary disorders, gallstones, jaundice, cirrhosis, hypoglycemia, dyspepsia with constipation, edema associated with high blood pressure and heart weakness, chronic joint and skin complaints, gout, eczema and acne. As a tonic, Dandelion strengthens the kidneys. An infusion of the root encourages the steady elimination of toxins from the body. Dandelion is a powerful diuretic but does not deplete the body of potassium.

Research is revealing that the many constituents of Dandelion including Taraxacin, Taraxacoside, Inulin, Phenolic acids, Sesquiterpene lactones, Triterpenes, Coumarins, Catortenoids and Minerals, mainly Potassium and calcium, are very valuable in curing a number of disorders and illnesses. Dandelion is traditionally used as a tonic and blood purifier, for constipation, inflammatory skin conditions, joint pain, eczema and liver dysfunction, including liver conditions such as hepatitis and jaundice.

Other Uses

When placed in a paper bag with unripe fruit, the flowers and leaves of Dandelion release ethylene gas ripening the fruit quickly. A liquid plant food is made from the root and leaves. A dark red dye is obtained from Dandelion root. A cosmetic skin lotion made from the appendages at the base of the leaf blades distilled in water, is used to clear the skin and is effective in fading freckles.

Main sources:

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Dandelion.html
http://altnature.com/gallery/Dandelion.htm

mulberry

Nutritional & Herbal Properties

Examples of mulberry’s medicinal properties are reducing blood serum glucose, lowering blood cholesterol and lipids levels, fighting arterial plaques and antiphlogistic, diuretic and expectorant effects. Various compounds present in mulberry that attribute to such therapeutic benefits are GABA, phytosterol, DNJ, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, etc. The nutritional values of 100g dry mulberry leafs are: Ca 2,699mg., Fe 44mg., Na 3.4mg., K 3,101mg., beta carotine 7.4mg., vitamin A 4,230 IU, vitamin B1 0.6mg., vitamin B2 1.4mg., vitamin C 32mg., and fiber 52g.

Mulberry Facts

Mulberry has been cultivated and used for around 5,000 years. There were four main varieties: black, red, white, mountain or wild mulberry. Over centuries, there have been over a hundred varieties and many hundreds more local sub-varieties. Because of its diversity, you can find a mulberry tree in almost any altitudes and climates in the world.

For thousands of year, mulberry trees have been cultivated for silk production because silk worms are fed on mulberry leaves. Often, human beings and animals also appreciate mulberry for its fruits and leaves. The berries are consumed fresh, in juice or preserves (like mulberry jam). Mulberry young leaves and stems are yummy vegetable. It also has medicinal properties in infusions such as mulberry leaf tea. Not until the past few decades, scientists started to pay great attention to the medicinal and nutritional qualities of mulberry plants.

There have been researches studying the components and benefits of mulberry leaves for human and animal consumption and pharmaceutical purposes. Studies found that mulberry leaves contain 15%-28% of protein, with essential amino acids, depending on varieties. Studies find that the leaves and young stems are high in mineral content and have no anti-nutritional factors or toxic compounds. Mulberry leaves have typical calcium content around 1.8-2.4% and phosphorus 0.14-0.24%. The values of potassium in leaves are 1.90-2.87% and 1.33-1.53% in young stems, and magnesium 0.47-0.63% and 0.26-0.35% in leaves and stems respectively. Indian scientists have suggested the use of the powdered of white mulberry leaves as a nutritious ingredient for paratha, one kind of Indian breads. In Korea, Japan and Thailand, mulberry fruit and leaves are used as functional food such as ice-cream and noodles, containing powdered mulberry leaves as an ingredient.

The use of the mulberry-leaf powder in ice-cream showed reducing of blood glucose level in consumers, instead of rising. Hence, mulberry-leaf powder could be used in a food item that contains a sugar content in order to maintain the blood sugar level. Reducing the blood serum glucose is only one of the healthy properties of mulberry mentioned in several traditional herbal books like the ‘Shin Nou Honzou Gyou’ (the Chinese original academic herbal book) ‘Kissa Youjouki’ written by Eisai Zen Monk in Japan, and the old Latins and folk medicine scripts.

Indigenous medicinal practitioners, for centuries, have used different parts of mulberry plant for treating diseases and symptoms such as high-blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and lipids levels, arterial plaques, diuresis, diabetes, constipation, cough-phlegm, cold, anemia, etc. Scientific researches have confirmed these healing qualities of mulberry plant. Several clinical studies found that mulberry leaf contains GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid), phytosterol, DNJ (Dioxiogirimycin), vitamins and minerals. GABA helps maintain the normal blood pressure. Phytosterol helps reduce cholesterol in blood vessels. DNJ helps reduce sugar in the blood stream: lowers the risk of getting heart disease. DNJ also stimulates the blood circulation and increases the fluid in the body.

A 5-year research conducted in Kanagawa, Japan found that mulberry leaves have various preventive effects on adult diseases. Some of the effects are:

  • Suppressing hypertension
  • Lowering cholesterol level
  • Preventing cancer (liver)
  • Reducing level of blood sugar
  • Suppressing mutagenesis of carcinogens.
Nutritional Value of Mulberry
  • Carbohydrate (in the form of sugars, mainly glucose and fructose) – 7.8 to 9.2%
  • Protein (with essential amino acids) – 15% to 28%
  • Fatty acids like linoleic, stearic, and oleic acids – 0.4 to0.5%
  • Malic acid, producing sour taste – 1.1 to1.9%
  • Fiber – 0.9 to1.4%
  • Calcium – 1.8 to 2.4%
  • Phosphorus – 0.14 to 0.24%
  • Potassium – 1.90 to 2.87% in leaves, 1.33 to1.53% in young stems
  • Magnesium – 0.47 to 0.63% in leaves, 0.26 to 0.35% in young stems
Health & Nutrition Benefits of Eating Mulberry
  • Mulberry can balance internal secretions and enhance immunity. It promotes proper body fluid production. People suffering from body fluid deficiency could take ten grams of mulberry daily with water.
  • Mulberry is useful for the persons who use their eyes a lot during work. Regular consumption of mulberry strengthens eyesight.
  • Presence of nutritious elements like minerals and vitamins in mulberry helps in curing chronic diseases.
  • Mulberry is helpful for proper gastric juice secretion.
  • Regular use of Mulberry enhances appetite, and also improves the ability for digesting and assimilating.
  • Mulberry could be used to fight problems like chronic gastritis and chronic hepatitis.
  • Regular consumption of mulberry juice would be helpful in curing health problems like anemia, pallor, dizziness, heart-palpitations and insomnia.
  • Persons with graying hair can also get benefited by regular intake of Mulberry. Mulberry juice applied directly on head also promotes healthy growth of hair and blackening.
  • Nutritious value of Mulberry enriches the blood and in the process, soothes the nerves.
  • Mulberry could be helpful in promoting the metabolism of alcohol.
  • Mulberry helps in containing hypertension.
  • Regular intake of Mulberry strengthens body parts like liver and kidney.
  • Mulberry is helpful in treating constipation.
  • Mulberry is instrumental in eliminating abdominal distention.
  • Intake of mulberry juice after any surgery is restorative.
  • Mulberry is helpful in recuperating after long-time sickness.
  • Consumption of Mulberry after childbirth is good for women’s health.
  • Use of Mulberry keeps low cholesterol level in the body.
  • Mulberry can suppress mutagenesis of carcinogens.
  • Regular use of Mulberry prevents cancer of liver.
  • Mulberry is helpful in reducing level of blood sugar.

Mulberry leaf powder contains full spectrium chemicals activities in pharmaceutical applications:

Ace-inhibitor activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-) epigallocatechin, afzelin, amentoflavone, astragalin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, zinc.

Aldose-reductase-inhibitor activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, 6-(pentadecyl)-salicylic-acid, acacetin, amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, astragalin, daucosterol, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, luteolin, p-coumaric-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, vanillic-acid.

Antihiv activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, opcs, procyanidin, quercetin, tannin.

Antiacne activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, anacardic-acid, beta-carotene, linoleic-acid, pufa, selenium, thymol, zinc.

Antiaging activity:
apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, bilobalide, chromium,
quercetin.

Antialzheimeran activity:
choline, quercetin, thiamin, zinc.

Antianginal activity:
magnesium, niacin.

Antianxiety activity:
calcium, magnesium, tryptophan.

Antiarrhythmic activity:
apigenin, ginkgolide-b, magnesium, potassium, protocatechuic-acid, quercitrin.

Antiarteriosclerotic activity:
histidine, linoleic-acid, silicon.

Antiarthritic activity:
ascorbic-acid, copper, linoleic-acid, magnesium, pantothenic-acid, quercetin, thymol.

Antiasthmatic activity:
ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolide-c, ginkgolides, magnesium, opcs, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,

Antiatherogenic activity:
luteolin, opcs, rutin.

Antiatherosclerotic activity:
ascorbic-acid, calcium, chromium, citric-acid, lutein, magnesium, malic-acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin,
thymol.

Antibiotic activity:
cysteine, opcs, procyanidin, prodelphinidin.

Anticancer activity:
alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, butyric-acid, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, rutin, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Anticancer (lung) activity:
alpha-carotene, apigenin, beta-sitosterol.

Anticarcinogenic activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, luteolin.

Anticarcinomic (breast) activity:
quercetin

Anticataract activity:
ascorbic-acid, cysteine, luteolin, methionine, quercetin, quercitrin, riboflavin, rutin, zinc.

Anticoagulant activity:
(+)-catechin, citric-acid, d-catechin.

Anticoronary activity:
beta-carotene, linoleic-acid, magnesium, selenium, zinc.

Antidepressant activity:
ascorbic-acid, calcium, magnesium, phenylalanine, potassium,
quercetin, tryptophan.

Antidiabetic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, choline, chromium, copper, fiber, fructose, glucomannan, magnesium, manganese, pinitol, quercetin, rutin, xylose, zinc.

Antiedemic activity:
amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, ginkgetin, glucose, opcs, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin, quercitrin,
rutin, sciadopitysin.

Antiestrogenic activity:
apigenin, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, quercetin.

Antifatigue activity:
pantothenic-acid, potassium, thiamin, vanillic-acid.

Antiflu activity:
ergosterol, p-cymene, quercetin, quercitrin.

Antiglaucomic activity:
ascorbic-acid, magnesium, rutin.

Antihepatotoxic activity:
ascorbic-acid, glucose, p-coumaric-acid, protocatechuic-acid,
quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, stigmasterol, tannin.

Antiinflammatory activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, copper, ginkgetin, ginkgolides, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin,
kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, magnesium, mufa, myricetin, oleic-acid, opcs, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,
quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside, quercitrin, rutin, sciadopitysin,
stigmasterol, thymol, vanillic-acid.

Antileukemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, astragalin, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, kaempferol, luteolin, p-coumaric-acid, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, selenium, vanillic-acid.

Antimelanomic activity:
apigenin, beta-ionone, luteolin, quercetin, rutin, selenium, thymol.

Antimigraine activity:
ascorbic-acid, magnesium, riboflavin, thiamin, tryptophan.

Antimutagenic activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, acacetin, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-eudesmol, beta-sitosterol, citric-acid, kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, nonacosane, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin,
tannin.

Antiobesity activity:
ascorbic-acid, chromium, fiber, opcs, zinc.

Antioxidant activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, alanine, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, bilobalide, bilobetin, campesterol, cysteine, gamma-tocopherol, ginkgetin, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolide-c, ginkgolide-j, ginkgolides, histidine, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol,
lauric-acid, lutein, luteolin, methionine, myricetin, myristic-acid, opcs, p-coumaric-acid, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, palmitic-acid, proanthocyanidins, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, sciadopitysin, selenium, shikimic-acid,
stigmasterol, sucrose, tannin, thymol, tryptophan, vanillic-acid.

Antiparkinsonian activity:
ascorbic-acid, methionine, niacin, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine.

Antiprostaglandin activity:
(+)-catechin, anacardic-acid, beta-sitosterol, ginkgoic-acid,
ginkgolic-acid, tryptophan.

Antirheumatic activity:
thymol, tryptophan, zinc.

Antisickling activity:
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic-acid,asparagine, glycine, homoserine, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, phenylalanine, vanillic-acid.

Antispasmodic activity:
apigenin, daucosterol, ginkgetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-rhamnoglucoside, luteolin, niacin, p-coumaric-acid, potassium, protocatechuic-acid,quercetin, quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside, quercitrin, rutin,shikimic-acid, thymol, valerianic-acid.

Antistress activity:
apigenin, beta-carotene, gamma-aminobutyric-acid.

Antistroke activity:
magnesium, proanthocyanidins.

Antithrombotic activity:
anacardic-acid, bilobol, cardanol, ginkgolides.

Antitumor activity:
anacardic-acid, apigenin, beta-carotene, beta-ionone, bilobol,
butyric-acid, citric-acid, cysteine, daucosterol, fiber, ginkgoic-acid, ginkgolic-acid, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, luteolin, malic-acid, p-coumaric-acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, selenium, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Antitumor (breast) activity:
apigenin, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, lutein, quercetin, selenium, zeaxanthin.

Antitumor (colon) activity:
beta-carotene, lutein, luteolin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin.

Antitumor (lung) activity:
apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, quercetin, selenium.

Antitumor (skin) activity:
apigenin, luteolin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,

Antitumor (brain) activity:
luteolin, selenium.

Antitumor-promoter activity:
isoquercitrin, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Antiulcer activity:
(+)-catechin, amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-eudesmol cysteine, elemol, fiber, ginkgolide-b, glycine,
histidine, kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, tannin, threonine, tyrosine, zinc.

Antiviral activity:
(-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, bilobetin, ergosterol, ginkgetin, kaempferol, lauric-acid, luteolin, myricetin, nonacosane, opcs, p-cymene, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, stigmasterol, tannin.

Anxiolytic activity:
apigenin, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, glutamic-acid.

Cancer-preventive activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alanine, alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-ionone, beta-sitosterol, cysteine, d-catechin, fiber, glycine, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, methionine, mufa, myricetin, myristic-acid, niacin, oleic-acid, opcs, p-coumaric-acid, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, pantothenic-acid,
quercetin, quercitrin, riboflavin, rutin, selenium, serine, shikimic-acid, stigmasterol, succinic-acid, tannin, tyrosine, vanillic-acid.

Cardiotonic activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, d-catechin, quercitrin.

Cosmetic activity:
behenic-acid, myristic-acid, stearic-acid.

Estrogenic activity:
apigenin, beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, stigmasterol.

Hepatoprotective activity:
(+)-catechin, acacetin, beta-eudesmol, beta-sitosterol, choline, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, methionine, niacin, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin, tannin, zeaxanthin.

Hypocholesterolemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, beta-ionone, beta-sitosterol, calcium, campesterol, chromium, copper, fiber, ginkgoic-acid, glucomannan, linoleic-acid, luteolin, magnesium, mufa, oleic-acid, rutin, stearic-acid, stigmasterol.

Hypotensive activity:
alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, astragalin, calcium, choline, chromium, fiber, gamma-aminobutyric-acid,
isoquercitrin, kaempferol, magnesium, quercitrin, rutin, tryptophan, zinc.

Hypoglycemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, chromium, daucosterol, manganese, myricetin, niacin, quercetin, quercitrin, tryptophan.

Immunostimulant activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, ascorbic-acid,
astragali, beta-carotene, phosphoru, protocatechuic-acid, selenium, zinc.

Insulinogenic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, chromium, magnesium, quercetin, zinc.

Inotropic activity:
apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin.

Neuroprotective activity:
bilobalide, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolides, kaempferol, quercetin.

Pituitary-stimulant activity:
arginine

Roborant activity:
aspartic-acid

Sunscreen activity:
apigenin, opcs, rutin.

Vasodilator activity:
(-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, arginine, ascorbic-acid, calcium, fiber, ginkgetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, magnesium, myricetin, niacin,potassium,
proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin.

Sedative activity:
apigenin, beta-eudesmol, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, niacin,
p-cymene, stigmasterol, thymol, tryptophan.
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