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Chemical constituents and properties
• From the seed is produced a bitter fixed oil, nimbidin, known as “Oil of Margosa” or neem oil.
• Neem seeds yield a fix oil of glycerides and bitter compounds including nimbin, nimbinin and nimbidol.
• Neem bark and leaves contain tannin and oil.
• Azadirachtin, the insecticide constitutent of the seeds, is biodegradable, non-mutagenic, and nontoxic to birds, fish, and warm-blooded animals. The EPA has approved a neem formulation (Margosan-O) as a pesticide for limited use on nonfood crops
• Antiinflammatory (nimbidin, sodium nimbidate, gallic acid, catechin, polysachharides).
• Antiarthritic, hypoglycemic, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, diuretic, anti-gastric ulcer (nimbidin)
• Antifungal (nimbidin, gedunin, cyclic trisulfide)
• Antibacterial (nimbidin, nimbolide, mahmoodin, margolone, margolonone, isomargolonone)
• Spermicidal (nimbin, nimbidin)
• Antimalarial (nimbolidfe, gedunin, azadirachtin)
• Antitumor (polysaccharides)
• Immunomodulatory (NB-II peptoglycan, gallic acid, epicatechin, catechin)
• Hepatoprotective (aequeous extract of neem leaf)
• Antioxidant (neem seed extract)
Parts used and preparation
Poultice of leaves for swollen glands, brusies and sprains.
Fresh leaf-tea used for malaria.
Tree and root barks have been used for malaria, jaundice, and for intestinal parasitism.
Edible pulp of the fruit used for hemorrhoids.
Leaf- leprosy, intestinal parasites, eye problems, skin ulcers
Bark – pain and fever.
Flower – bile suppression, intestinal worms and phlegm.
Fruit – piles, intestinal worms, urinary disorder, nose bleeding , phlegm, eye problem, diabetes, wounds and leprosy.
Twig – cough, asthma, piles, intestinal worms, spermatorrhoea, urinary disorders, diabetes.
Gum – ringworms,scabies, wounds and ulcers.
Seed pulp and oil- leprosy and intestinal worms.
Young tender branches are chewed for toothbrushing use.
Leaf’s oil is used as a local antiseptic and insecticide.
Neem oil may be useful for gingivitis.
In the rural areas, burning of leaves and seeds used as mosquito repellant.
Neem oil has been shown to possess some spermicidal and contraceptive properties when used intravaginally.
Use of neem oil in animals showed lowering of glucose
Neem extracts used in the manufacture of toothpaste for its antibacterial properties.
Fresh seed oil has a strong garlic odor and is an ingredient for insect sprays.
• Studies have suggested hypoglycemic, antiulcer, antifertility, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer and antioxidant effects.
• Effect of essential oils from two Nigerian medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida) on growth and aflatoxin B1 production in maize grain by a toxigenic Aspergillus flavus: Oils from A indica completely suppressed aflatoxin synthesis.
• Lipid Effects / Antiviral: Effect of Supplemental Garlic and Neem Leaves in Broiler Feeds on Blood Cholesterol, Triglycerids and Antibody Titer: Study showed neem had greater potential than garlic in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides and increasing the antibody titers against viruses.
• Anti-ulcer: Mechanism of antiulcer effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract: effect on H+-K+-ATPase, oxidative damage and apoptosis: Study suggests antiulcer activity is achieved by blocking acid secretionn through inhibition of H+K+ATPase and preventing oxidative damage and apoptosis.
• Anti-candidal: Anticandidal activity of Azadirachta indica: Study suggested hexane and alcoholic extracts to have anticandidal potential.
Scientific name: Gardinia florida
Caution: Not recommended for Diabetic
For jaundice or liver infection or bile yellow-skinned, big fever, cough, unable to sleep,
kidney disease, dysentery almost 2 or 3grasp of fruits..4 to 8grasp of roots, decoction 2 glass of water and drink 3 times a day.. For: vomiting blood,blood urine, 3 grasp of fruits mix 5 grasp of driedroots of imperata cylindrica, decoction in one letter of water and drink 3 times a day..Gardinia florida antipyretic, sedative, antihemorrhagic, antifungal, antibacteria, anti-imflammatory and cleansing to gallbladder.
· Parts utilized: roots, leaves, fruits.
· Collect fruits during August to October.
· Roots: rinse, section into pieces, sun-dry.
· Fruits: sun-dry after stemming.
· Decoction of leaves and flowers used for dyspepsia, flatulences, nervous disorders and abdominal pains.
· Decoction of bark (50-55 g) used for fevers. dysentery and abdominal pains.
· Decoction of flowers used as wash for inflammed eyes.
· Poultice of leaves for swollen breasts; may be mixed with vioileta and other herbs.
· Jaundice, hepatitis
· Fruit is antiseptic; used for tootaches, foul sores.
· Cough, fever.
· Bacillary dysentery.
· Nephritic edema
· Epistaxis, painful outgrowth at the tongue
· Mastitis, furuncle
· Lymph node tuberculosis
· Dosage: use 30 to 60 gms dried roots, 60 to 120 gms dried fruits in decoction. Fruits may be pulverized and applied to regions with furuncle, sprains, lymph node tuberculosis with water or alcohol.
• In China, extract used traditionally to treat diabetes.
• Antioxidant: Crocin is a water soluble carotenoid found in the fruits of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) and seems to possess moderately strong antioxidant activity
• Diabetes: Study discovered “genipin” from the Gardenia extract. Genipin blocks the the UCP2 enzyme (uncoupling protein 2) that inhibits pancreatic insulin secretion. It suggests a potential for genipin-related compounds.
· Flowers, roots, and leaves.
· Harvest the roots and leaves anytime of the year.
· Wash, cut into slices, and sun-dry. The flowers should be collected from May to August, sun-dry.
Characteristics and Pharmacological Effects
· Considered emollient, emmenagogue, anodyne, expectorant, refrigerant.
· Anti-infectious, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, diuretic, antipyretic.
• Hypotensive, antispasmodic.
· Prepared drug has sweet taste, neutral natured.
· The Hibiscus with five petals noted for its medicinal properties, the flowers are considerede astringent. The roots contain a mucilage that is soothing on the mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory tracts.
Flowers: Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins which are antioxidant, antipyretic, analgesic, spasmolytic.
Polysaccharides which promote wound healing and are immune-modulating.
· Mumps, infection of the urinary tract: use dried drug materials 15 to 30 gms, boil to decoction and drink.
· For abscesses, carbuncles and boils: crush fresh leaves and poultice the infected area. Also, pound flower buds into a paste and apply to external swellings; also used for boils, cancerous swellings and mumps.
· Decoction of roots, barks, leaves and flowers used as an emollient.
· Decoction from roots of red and white-flowered plants used as an antidote for poison.
· Bark is an emmenagogue; also used to normalize menstruation.
· Seeds used as a stimulant and for cramps.
· Decoction of leaves for fevers.
· For headaches, an infusion of leaves or poultice of leaves.
· Leaves are mildly laxative.
· Mucilage during labor.
· Red flowers are purgative; when taken with papaya seeds, may be abortive.
· Infusion of leaves as an expectorant in bronchitis.
· Hair stimulant: oil made by mixing the juice of fresh petals and olive oil for stimulating hair growth.
• In Costa Rica, used as a purgative.
• In Venezuela, used to treat tumors.
• In the Carribean, used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory.
• In the Dominican Republic, used to treat hematomas.
A tasty tea is brewed from its petals.
• Studies have demonstrated anti-bacterial, hypotensive, antispasmodic, and chemopreventive activities. It has shown glucose lowering in diabetic rats. Leaf extract has shown to promote hair growth.
• Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots: The study explored the antifertility and estrogenic activity of root extracts of H. rosa-sinensis. A strong anti-implantation and uterotropic activity was observed.
• Effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) on Wound Healing Activity: A Preclinical Study in a Sprague Dawley Rat: Study results on flower extracts suggest H. rosa-sinensis aids wound healing in the rat model.
• Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat: The study concludes that the flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis augments endogenous antioxidant activity and prevented isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.
• Presence of cholinergic and calcium channel blocking activities explains the traditional use of Hibiscus rosasinensis in constipation and diarrhoea: Study indicates the crude extract had spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents to explain its traditional use in constipation and diarrhea.
• Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of flowers of hibiscus rosasinensis linn: Flowers extract studies isolated new compounds which showed hypotensive activity in combination use. Further pharmacological investigation is suggested.
Gumamela is a shrub that grows from one meter up to 4 meters high. Gumamela is also known as: Hibiscus, China Rose and Shoeflower. In the Philippines, gumamela is cultivated as an ornamental plant. The gumamela flower comes in many colors: red, yellow, orange, white, purple, pink and other color combinations.
Gumamela leaves, usually blended with Rose Hip has long been used in the Middle East and Okinawa as herbal tea. Today, the use of gumamela tea is gaining worldwide popularity – including Asia. Gumamela (Hibiscus) is associated with longevity.
Gumamela as Herbal Medicine
As herbal medicine, gumamela flower, leaves and roots are used. Gumamela has the following medicinal characteristics: expectorant, diuretic, emollient, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anodyne and refrigerant.
Preparation & Use of Gumamela:
There are two ways to utilize gumamela as herbal medicine. One is dried and the other is fresh. For Dried gumamela, collect the flower, leaves and/or roots. Wash, then cut into small pieces and sun dry. To use as decoction, boil the dried gumamela parts (1/4 cup dried gumamela in 1 glass of water)
To make a decoction from fresh gumamela, Wash gumamela flower and/or leaves, cut into small pieces and boil (1/3 cup in 1 glass of water), let cool and drink.
Use Gumamela as Poultice:
Poultice is the use or fresh or dried herbs that is mashed, crushed or pounded – often heated (boiled in water to soften and heat the herb) and applied directly to the skin. A clean cloth or gauze can be used to help the poultice stay in place.
Gumamela is used for the treatment of:
• Bronchitis – as an expectorant
• Coughs, sore throat
• Fever – as refrigerant drink
• Treats dysentery
• Urinary tract infection, bladder infections
• High blood pressure
• Prevention of constipation
• Boils, swelling & abscesses, mumps
Application & Use of Gumamela:
• Decoction is used to treat: Bronchitis, coughs, fever, dysentery, urinary and bladder infections, high blood pressure and constipation.
• Poultice is applied externally on the afflicted area. This is used to treat: headaches (on the forehead), boils, swelling, abscesses and mumps.
• Intake of gumamela (alone or mixed with papaya or papaya seeds) specially in large quantities can be an abortifacient.
Bark, leaves and flowers.
Antispasmodic and emollient.
Decoction of flowers for abdominal cramps.
Decoction used as emollient.
Flowers used as antiseptic and to treat spasms.
Also used to relieve colds and headaches.
Bark used for making rope.
Wood is compact, fine-grained, moderately strong and light in weight and durable.
• In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Muntingia calabura extracts: The study concluded that M. calabura possesses a potential antibacterial property that is comparable to the standard antibiotics used. The study also suggests the presence of a more potent polar antibacterial compound.
• Activity-guided isolation of the chemical constituents of Muntingia calabura using a quinone reductase induction assay: The study isolated a flavanone as well as 24 known compounds, which were mainly flavanones and flavones.
• Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract in animal model: The study concludes that M. calabura leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities, justifying the Peruvian folkloric medicinal use.
• Plant anticancer agents, XLVIII. New cytotoxic flavonoids from Muntingia calabura roots: 12 new flavonoids were isolated (7 flavans, 3 flavones, two biflavans). Most of the isolates demonstrated cytotoxic activity and some exhibited selective activities when evaluated with a number of human cancer cell lines.
Main source: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Aratiles.html