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Medical Notes

Much ado about spirulina

By EDUARDO GONZALES, MD

May 10, 2010, 5:35am

Q: What is spirulina? There are claims that it can cure certain diseases? Is this true? Has there been any research conducted, local (FNRI) or otherwise on the health benefits of spirulina?
–DaveLJ @yahoo.com

A: Spirulina is a tiny blue-alga or plankton that naturally grows in warm water alkaline volcanic lakes. Like all plants containing chlorophyll, Spirulina is able to synthesize or manufacture nutrients such as proteins, vitamins and minerals from water and air in the presence of sunlight.

Spirulina is a traditional food of many indigenous people of Mexico (i.e., Aztecs) and some African countries.  However, modern man has largely ignored the value of the plant until about 40 years ago when it was rediscovered by the public and some members of the scientific community. At present, it is available commercially in tablet or capsule form in many countries including the U.S., Japan and the Philippines. Its principal use for which it has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is as a food supplement.

Nutrient analyses of Spirulina are very revealing. It contains 55 to 70 percent protein, four to seven percent fat including the essential fatty acids linolenic and linoleic acids, 15 to 25 percent carbohydrate, considerable amounts of vitamins especially provitamin A, Vitamin E and the B complex vitamins (it is reportedly the world’s richest natural source of vitamin B-12), and traces of minerals like calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese. Spirulina is easy to digest, thus, it is a remarkable source of nutrients for humans.

Recently, Spirulina has been gaining more attention because many anecdotal reports and some scientific studies—mostly on animals—have suggested that aside from its nutritional value, it has some therapeutic effects. Incidentally, these scientific studies were conducted abroad. I have not come across a study that has been done in the Philippines.  In any case, the studies are preliminary and by no means conclusive, but they indicate that Spirulina can help (with emphasis on the word help) shrink and prevent cancers, fight some viral infections, strengthen the body’s immune system and prevent anemia.

Spirulina may help regress and prevent cancer because some common forms of cancer are the result of damaged cell DNA and in vitro studies show that Spirulina enhances repair of damaged DNA. Furthermore, studies on animals with induced cancer report high levels of suppression of the malignancies after being fed whole Spirulina or treated with its water extracts.

Another in-vitro study using a purified water extract from Spirulina called Calcium-Spirulan indicates that the alga has some anti-viral activity because it inhibited the replication of HIV-1, herpes simples, human cytomegalovirus, influenza A virus, mumps virus and measles virus.

Spirulina evidently perks up the immune system. Several studies have shown that feeding animals with Spirulina increases the number and the activity of these animals’ protective cells against germs and parasites.

Chinese scientists have suggested that Spirulina can help prevent anemia because they have documented the presence of phycocyanin in Spirulina. This is a chemical that stimulates red blood cell formation much like the hormone erythropoetin (EPO) does.

All told, I am convinced that Spirulina is indeed a rich source of protein, vitamins and minerals and that it is can serve as a good nutritional supplement for optimum health and wellness. But I seriously doubt whether on its own, it can prevent, much less cure, any disease, encouraging preliminary scientific evidence notwithstanding. If at all, it can simply help prevent some chronic diseases in the same way that other plant-derived antioxidants do.

By the way, there is a group in our country—the Spirulina Foundation of the Philippines—that is dedicated to producing the alga in massive quantities by scientific cultivation.

(Email inquiries on health matters to: medical_notes@yahoo.com)

http://mb.com.ph/articles/256729/much-ado-about-spirulina

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cherries

The Cherry Research Committee is seeking proposals for new cherry research studies. Submit your proposal and learn more at www.cherryresearch.com.

Cherries are not only good for you, but they’re also on trend as a homegrown “Super Fruit.” According to recent data, more than 9 out of 10 Americans want to know where their food comes from, nearly 80 percent say they’re purchasing “locally produced” products, and the majority is defining “local” as grown in America.1,2 And cherries deliver.

A growing body of science reveals tart cherries, enjoyed as either dried, frozen cherries or cherry juice, have among the highest levels of disease-fighting antioxidants, when compared to other fruits. They also contain other important nutrients such as beta carotene (19 times more than blueberries or strawberries) vitamin C, potassium, magnesium, iron, fiber and folate.

Emerging evidence links cherries to many important health benefits – from helping to ease the pain of arthritis and gout, to reducing risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Cherries also contain melatonin, which has been found to help regulate the body’s natural sleep patterns, aid with jet lag, prevent memory loss and delay the aging process.

A recent study from the University of Michigan reveals new evidence linking cherries to heart health benefits. The study found that a cherry-enriched diet lowered total weight, body fat (especially the important “belly” fat), inflammation and cholesterol-all risk factors associated with heart disease. According to the American Heart Association, being overweight or obese, in particular when the weight is concentrated in the middle, is a major risk factor for heart disease. As nearly two out of three Americans are overweight, emerging studies like this are important in examining the role diet may play in disease management and prevention.

Click on Cardiovascular/Heart Health for more information on the role cherries may play in reducing inflammation and risk factors associated with heart disease.

While there’s no established guideline yet on how many cherries it takes to reap the benefits, experts suggest that 1-2 servings of cherries daily can help provide some of the health benefits identified in the research. Single serving size examples include:
• 1/2 cup dried
• 1 cup frozen
• 1 cup juice
• 1 ounce (or 2 Tbsp) juice concentrate

For additional information on serving sizes and tips to meet daily requirements for fruits and vegetables, visit: www.5aday.gov/what/index.html

1: Survey conducted by IRI Data, 2008
2: Survey conducted by The Hartman Group, 2008

http://www.choosecherries.com/health/main.aspx

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cherries2

Health Benefits of Cherries :

a. Cherries red pigment is called anthocyanins, this pigment has been shown to reduce pain and inflammation.

b. Cherry Anthocyanins are also a powerful antioxidant.

c. Cherries help stimulate the secretion of digestive juices and of the urine and are effective cleansers of the liver and kidneys.

d. Eating large quantities of cherries, from one half pound and up daily, has been found to bring relief to patients with gout, a disease that is characterized by an excess of uric acid in the blood and attacks of arthritis.

e. Cherry also contain a high level of melatonin, is a substance that is important in the immune system function. Study shown that people who experience heart attack have low melatonin levels.

f. May help prevent cancer in organs and glands with epithelial tissue due to its high Vitamin A content.

g. Cherries is also helpful in the following cases ; Anemia, Colds (runny nose), Obesity, Cramps, Intestinal worm, High blood Pressure, Rheumatism, Asthma

Nutritive Values : Per 100 gm.

  • Vitamin A : 620 I.U.
  • Vitamin B : Thiamine .05 mg.;
  • Riboflavin : .06 mg.;
  • Niacin : .4 mg.
  • Vitamin C : 8 mg.
  • Calcium : 18 mg.
  • Iron : .4 mg.
  • Phosphorus : 20 mg.
  • Fat : .5 gm.
  • Carbohydrates : 14.8 gm.
  • Protein : .5 gm.
  • Calories : 61

http://hubpages.com/hub/Health_Benefits_of_Cherries

Health benefits of Cherries:

There are a number of health benefits associated with the cherry fruit. Among the many wellness promoting attributes of the fruit, the main ones include:

  • Cherry is being researched upon extensively in the human battle against cancer. Research, so far, reveals that consumption of the fruit is especially beneficial in fighting organ cancers.
  • The anti-oxidants in cherries clean up free radicals, or the unstable molecules responsible for cell damage in the human body. This is believed to slow down the aging process.
  • Research reveals that the anthocyanin red pigment in cherries helps to reduce inflammation and pain.
  • The cherry fruit is also credited with reduced risk of heart disease and diabetes, on consumption. Research reveals that people who include the fruit as it is or in supplement form in the daily diet display lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides.
  • A daily cupful has the ability to address and relieve the discomfort associated with arthritis, and gout.
  • The cherry fruit is low in fat and high in water content. Regular consumption helps to boost energy levels and modify metabolism for effective weight loss. It is also being used as a natural cure for Fibromyalgia Syndrome and certain physiological problems.
  • High potassium content in cherries controls water retention and aids in the treatment of autoimmune neuro-degenerative ailments and connective tissue diseases.
  • Cherries are easily available fresh, juiced and canned. Rich servings of the fruit ensures a daily intake of essential iron, potassium, magnesium, iron, fiber and folate.
  • Probably the most important and benefiting attribute of the fruit is its newly discovered ability to help in the weight loss process. The cherry fruit is low in fat and high in water content. Regular consumption helps to boost energy levels and modify metabolism for effective weight loss. The fruit is being tapped for potential fat burn and blood pressure regulation.

By Gaynor Borade
Published: 4/15/2009

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/health-benefits-of-cherries.html

See also:

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/health-benefits-of-cherries.html
http://healthmad.com/nutrition/health-benefits-of-cherries/
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-health-benefits-of-cherries.htm
http://guide2herbalremedies.com/health-benefits-cherry-juice/
http://www.edubook.com/health-benefits-of-cherry-juice/3820/

banana

Bananas consist mainly of sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and fiber, which makes them ideal for an immediate and slightly prolonged source of energy

Reducing Depression

Bananas contain tryptophan, an aminoacid that can be converted to serotonin, leading to improved mood

Anemia

Bananas are relatively high in iron, which helps the body’s hemoglobin function

Constipation and Diarrhea

Due to their content in fiber, they help restore a normal bowel function. In addition, diarrhea usually depletes your body of important electrolytes (of which the most important is potassium, contained in high amounts in bananas). They also contain pectin, a soluble fiber (hydrocolloid) that can help normalize movement through the digestive tract.

Eyesight Protection

Research published in the Archives of Ophthalmology has proven that adults consuming at least 3 servings of fruit per day have a reduced risk (by 36%) of developing age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the primary cause of vision loss in older adults, compared to persons who consume less than 1.5 servings of fruit daily.

Healthy Bones

Bananas are an exceptionally rich source of fructooligosaccharide, a compound that nourishes probiotic (friendly) bacteria in the colon. These beneficial bacteria produce enzymes that increase our digestive ability and protect us from unhealthy bacteria infections. Thanks to fructooligosaccharides, probiotic bacteria can increase both in number and functionality, increasing our body’s ability to absorb calcium.
In addition, green bananas contain indigestible short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are very nutrient to the cells that make up the mucosa of the stomach. These cells, when healthy, absorb calcium much more efficiently

Healthy Kidney

About 190,000 cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed each year.
Research published in the International Journal of Cancer has shown that daily consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, especially bananas, is highly protective to kidney health. The results show that, over a long timeframe (13.4 years), women eating more than 2.5 servings of fruits and vegetable per day cut their risk of kidney cancer by 40%. Among the fruits, bananas were especially protective. Women eating bananas four to six times a week halved their risk of developing the disease compared to those who did not eat this fruit. The conclusion of the study is that frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially bananas, cabbage and root vegetables, may reduce risk of kidney cancer. This is because bananas and many root vegetables contain especially high amounts of antioxidant phenolic compounds, while cabbage is rich in sulfur, necessary for effective detoxification of potential carcinogens.

Blood Pressure

Bananas are extremely high in potassium (about 4673mg), yet very low in sodium (1mg), thus having a perfect ratio for preventing high blood pressure. So much so, the US Food and Drug Administration has just allowed the banana industry to make official claims for the fruit’s ability to reduce the risk of blood pressure and stroke.

Heartburn

Bananas have a natural antacid effect in the body, so if you suffer from heartburn, try eating a banana for soothing relief.

Morning Sickness

Snacking on bananas between meals helps to keep blood-sugar levels up and avoid morning sickness.

Smoking

Bananas can also help people trying to give up smoking. They contain vitamins B6 and B12 they contain, as well as potassium and magnesium: these substances help the body recover from the effects of nicotine withdrawal.

Ulcers

This is the only raw fruit that can be eaten without distress in over-chronicle cases. It also helps reduce acidity and reduces irritation. Bananas stimulate the cells on the internal stomach lining to produce a thicker mucus (which protects against acid). Additionally, bananas contain protease inhibitors that help eliminate bacteria in the stomach that have been pinpointed as a primary cause of ulcers.

Nerves

Bananas are high in B vitamins that have been shows to improve nerve function

Mosquito Bites

Many people report that rubbing the inside of a banana peel on a mosquito bite is very effective in reducing itching and swelling

Stress Relief

Bananas are high in potassium, which helps normalize the hearthbeat and regulate the body’s water balance. During periods of high stress, our body’s potassium levels tend to be rapidly depleted: eating bananas is a healthy way to rebalance them without using drugs

Stroke Risk

According to a study in The New England Journal of Medicine, eating bananas as part of a regular diet can reduce the risk of death by strokes by as much as 40%

Source: http://bananasweb.com/bananas/Health+Benefits+of+Bananas

Nutritive Values : Per 100 gm.

  • Vitamin A : 430 I.U.
  • Vitamin B : Thiamine .04 mg.;
  • Vitamin C : 10 mg.
  • Calcium : 8 mg.
  • Iron : 6 mg.
  • Phosphorus : 28 mg.
  • Potassium : 260 mg.
  • Carbohydrates : 23 gm
  • Protein : 1.2 mg.
  • Calories : 88

The skin of the banana is said to help remove warts(cover the warts with the inner skin of banana).

Source: http://hubpages.com/hub/Health_Benefits_of_Banana

An old Zulu remedy for bad skin has been developed as a high tech treatment for psoriasis – its secret ingredient is bananas.

Exorex lotion has been launched on prescription in the UK. It was developed after a South African psoriasis sufferer, Piet Meyer, noticed that Zulus traditionally used banana peel to treat skin problems.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/112732.stm

See also:

http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=7
http://medicalcravings.com/?p=93
http://thetaoofgoodhealth.com/6-awesome-health-benefits-of-bananas-9/
http://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/fruit/health-benefits-of-banana.html
http://www.elements4health.com/bananas.html
http://naturecure.ygoy.com/2009/05/21/health-benefits-of-banana/
http://www.highlighthealth.com/food-and-nutrition/benefits-of-bananas/

parsley

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), the world’s most popular culinary herb is also known as “rock celery” and belongs to the Umbelliferae family of plants. Parsley is one of the world’s seven most potent disease-fighting spices which also include Ginger, Oregano, Cinnamon, Turmeric, Sage, and Red chili peppers. Parsley grows in most climates and is readily available throughout the year. It is a biennial plant which means that it produces seeds during its second year of production and will reseed itself if you let it.

While parsley is a wonderfully nutritious and healing food, it is often under-appreciated. Most people do not realize that this vegetable has more uses than just being a decorative garnish that accompanies restaurant meals.

Parsley is native to the Mediterranean region of Southern Europe and has been cultivated for more than 2,000 years. It was originally used as a medicinal plant (see below) prior to being consumed as a food. Ancient Greeks held parsley to be sacred, using it to not only adorn victors of athletic contests, but also for decorating the tombs of the deceased. While it is uncertain when and where parsley began to be consumed as a seasoning, historians think it may be sometime during the Middle Ages in Europe. Some historians credit Charlemagne with its popularization as he had it grown on his estates.

Parsley’s Many Therapeutic Health Benefits Include Its Use For:

· Anemia: Builds up the blood because it is high in iron.  The high vitamin C content assists the absorption of iron.

  • Antioxidant: Increases the anti-oxidant capacity of the blood.
  • Bactericidal (kills bacteria)
  • Bad breath
  • Baldness: Believe it or not, men even scrubbed parsley onto their scalps to cure baldness—which doesn’t work.
  • Blood purifier
  • Blood vessel rejuvenation: Maintains elasticity of blood vessels, and helps to repair bruises.
  • Diarrhea is greatly helped by drinking parsley tea.
  • Digestion: Parsley is an excellent digestion restorative remedy. It improves the digestion of proteins and fats therefore promoting intestinal absorption, liver assimilation and storage. Because of its high enzyme content, parsley benefits digestive activity and elimination.
  • Dissolves cholesterol within the veins
  • Diuretic
  • Ear health: Treats deafness and ear infections.
  • Edema: Acts as a diuretic and blood vessel strengthener.
  • Fatigue: Parsley is high in iron so helps repair and provides components for better blood cells.
  • Gallstones: Helps dissolve them.
  • Glandular support of the liver, spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands.
  • Gout
  • Hormonal support: In women, parsley improves estrogen and nourishes and restores the blood of the uterus. Conditions like delayed menstruation, PMS, and the menopause (dry skin, irritability, depression and hair loss) can often improve.
  • Hormone balancing is achieved through the volatile fatty acids contained in parsley.
  • Immune booster: The high vitamin C, beta carotene, B12, chlorophyll and essential fatty acid content render parsley an extraordinary immunity enhancing food. Parsley is an immune-enhancing multi-vitamin and mineral complex in green plant form and one of the most important herbs for providing vitamins to the body.
  • Inhibits tumor formation, particularly in the lungs.
  • Insect bites: Rub on to relieve the swelling and itch.
  • Jaundice
  • Kidneys: Parsley is effective for nearly all kidney and urinary complaints except severe kidney inflammation. It improves kidney activity and can help eliminate wastes from the blood and tissues of the kidneys. It prevents salt from being reabsorbed into the body tissues; thus parsley literally forces debris out of the kidneys, liver and bladder. It helps improve edema and general water retention, fatigue and scanty or painful urination.
  • Liver congestion: It enriches the liver and nourishes the blood. Parsley helps reduce liver congestion, clearing toxins and aiding rejuvenation.
  • Menstrual irregularity: Parsley helps to make the cycles regular by the presence of apiol which is a constituent of the female sex hormone estrogen.
  • Menstrual pain
  • Night blindness: Bad eyesight is a sign of Vitamin A deficiency.
  • Rheumatism
  • Spleen strengthening: The parsley root in particular strengthens the spleen, and can, therefore, treat malabsorption.
  • Stamina loss and low resistance to infection, point to a sluggish liver. This can manifest itself in blood deficiencies, fatigue, a pale complexion and poor nails, dizzy spells, anemia and mineral depletion.
  • Stomach problems
  • Strengthens loose teeth: In the Middle Ages parsley was used for many conditions including ‘fastening teeth’ (Scurvy, which is caused by a Vitamin C deficiency, makes the gums spongy and the teeth loose.)
  • Uterine tonic
  • Weight loss benefits from being a diuretic

Nutritional Benefits of Parsley:

Parsley is a nutrient powerhouse containing high levels of beta carotene, vitamin B12, folate, chlorophyll, calcium, more vitamin C than citrus fruits, and just about all other known nutrients. Parsley is a moistening, nourishing, restoring, ‘warming’ food, pungent with a slightly bitter, salty flavor. It enhances and stimulates the energy of organs, improving their ability to assimilate and utilize nutrients.

Beta carotene is used for protein assimilation. This nutrient benefits the liver and protects the lungs and colon. Beta-carotene is converted by the body to vitamin A, a nutrient so important to a strong immune system that its nickname is the “anti-infective vitamin.”

Chlorophyll Parsley is abundant in chlorophyll, thus purifying and inhibiting the spread of bacteria, fungi and other organisms. Chlorophyll from parsley is slightly anti-bacterial and anti-fungal which acts to enhance immune response and to relieve mucus congestion, sinusitis and other ‘damp’ conditions. Chlorophyll, high in oxygen, also suppresses viruses and helps the lungs to discharge residues from environmental pollution.

Essential Fatty Acids Parsley is a source of alpha-linolenic acid, an important essential fatty acid that is too frequently deficient in today’s diets.

Fluorine is an important nutritional component abundantly found in parsley. Fluorine has an entirely different molecular structure from chemically-produced fluoride. Tooth decay results from a shortage of fluorine, not fluoride. It is the combination of calcium and fluorine which creates a very hard protective surface on teeth and bones. Fluorine also protects the body from infectious invasion, germs and viruses.

Folic Acid, one of the most important B vitamins, but one of its most critical roles in relation to cardiovascular health is to convert homocysteine into benign molecules. Homocysteine is a potentially dangerous molecule that, at high levels, can directly damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart attacks and stroke in people with atherosclerosis or diabetic heart disease. Folic acid is also a critical nutrient for proper cell division and is therefore vitally important for cancer-prevention in two areas of the body that contain rapidly dividing cells–the colon, and in women, the cervix.

Iron: The iron content of parsley is exceptional with 5.5mg per100g (4oz). A half-cup of fresh parsley or one tablespoon dried has about 10 percent of your iron daily requirements.  Plus, parsley has the vitamin C your body needs to absorb that iron.

Protein: Parsley is made up of 20% protein. (About the same as mushrooms.)

Vitamin B12 Parsley contains traces of B12 producing compounds. Such compounds are needed for the formation of red blood cells and normal cell growth, important for fertility, pregnancy, immunity and the prevention of degenerative illness. The action of vitamin B12, however, is inhibited by birth control pills, antibiotics, intoxicants, stress, sluggish liver, and excess bacteria or parasites in the colon or digestive tracts. Parsley helps to counteract these inhibitors.

Vitamin K: Getting at least 100 micrograms of Vitamin K a day can drastically cut your risk of hip fracture. Vitamin K is necessary for bones to get the minerals they need to form properly. Parsley is loaded with vitamin K (180 mcg per 1/2 cup). Cooking parsley nearly doubles its Vitamin K.

Vitamin C: Parsley contains more vitamin C than any other standard culinary vegetable, with 166mg per 100g (4oz). This is three times as much as oranges. Flavonoids, which make up the Vitamin C molecule, maintain blood cell membranes, and act as an antioxidant helper.

Volatile oil components – including myristicin, limonene, eugenol, and alpha-thujene. Parsley’s volatile oils, particularly myristicin, have been shown to inhibit tumor formation in animal studies, and particularly, tumor formation in the lungs. It acts as an antioxidant that can help neutralize particular types of carcinogens (like the benzopyrenes that are part of cigarette smoke, charcoal grill smoke, and the smoke produced by trash incinerators).

Parsley also contains calcium (245mg per 100g), phosphorus, potassium (1000mg per 4 oz), manganese (2.7mg per 100g), inositol, and sulphur.

Many of my client’s test they would benefit greatly from eating parsley for all kinds of health problems.

How to Use Parsley:

Top off your sandwiches with it, include it in your salad greens, put it in Tabbouli or better yet, toss it into simmering soups, stews and sauces. We eat it raw in salads and those days when I can’t eat it raw, I often add a couple of parsley capsules to my nutritional supplements.

Parsley juice, as an herbal drink, is quite powerful and is usually taken in quantities of about 2 fl oz (50ml) three times a day and is best mixed with other juices. I noticed that it’s most effective to juice parsley in between other vegetables as the juice is heavy and thick and doesn’t move through some juicers very readily.

Types of Parsley:

The two most popular types of parsley are curly parsley and Italian flat leaf parsley.  They are both related to celery. The Italian variety has a more fragrant and less bitter taste than the curly variety. There is also another type of parsley known as turnip-rooted (or Hamburg) that is cultivated for its roots, which resemble salsify and burdock. Chinese parsley, is actually cilantro.

How to Pick and Care for Parsley:

Whenever possible, choose fresh, dark green, organically grown parsley that looks fresh and crisp over the dried form of the herb since it is superior in flavor. Avoid bunches that have wilted or yellowed leaves indicating over-mature or damaged produce.

Parsley can be stored loosely wrapped in a damp cloth or plastic bag and refrigerated for up to a week. Wash just before using. If the parsley wilts, either sprinkle it lightly with some water or wash it without completely drying it before putting it back in the refrigerator.

The best way to clean it is just like you would spinach. Place it in a bowl of cold water and plunge it up and down like you would a toilet plunger. This will allow any sand or dirt to dislodge. Remove the leaves from the water, empty the bowl, refill it with clean water and repeat this process until no dirt remains in the water.

If you have excess flat-leaved parsley, you can easily dry it by laying it out in a single layer on a clean kitchen cloth. I pre-chop mine (both varieties) and place it on a cookie sheet on top of the refrigerator where it is warm. Stir it occasionally to allow consistent drying. Once dried, it should be kept in a tightly sealed container in a cool, dark and dry place.

Some feel the curly leaved variety is best preserved by freezing, as opposed to drying. Although it will retain most of its flavor, it has a tendency to lose its crispness, so it is best used in recipes without first thawing.

Bon Appétit!

http://www.naturalhealthtechniques.com/diet_nutrition/ParsleyBenefits.htm

Some believe that parsley leaves can help control bedwetting (enuresis).

Oxalic acid is found in parsley. Oxalic acid prevents calcium absorption and may also contribute to gallstones and kidney stones. For the average person that eats a balanced diet, the small amounts of oxalic acid will not be a health factor. However, those with low calcium health concerns will not want to eat excessive amounts of parsley.

http://www.indepthinfo.com/parsley/health.shtml

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Useful Sites

http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=100

http://ezinearticles.com/?Health-Benefits-Of-Parsley&id=111028

http://www.ehow.com/how_5395753_benefit-parsley-herb-home-remedies.html

http://hubpages.com/hub/Health-Benefits-Of-Parsley

http://www.crazyfortea.com/parsleytea.html

pigeonpea

Chemical constituents and properties
Roots are considered antihelminthic, expectorant, febrifuge, sedative, vulnerary.
Seeds are rich in carbohydrates (58%) and proteins (19%).
Fair source of calcium and iron; good source of vitamin B.
Chemical studies reveal: 2′-2’methylcajanone, 2′-hydroxygenistein, isoflavones, cajanin, cahanones, among many others.

Parts used and preparation
Leaves, roots.

Uses
Folkloric
Decoction or infusionn of leaves for coughs, diarrhea, abdominal pains.
Tender leaves are chewed for aphthous stomatitis and spongy gums.
Pulped or poulticed leaves used for sores.
In Peru, leaves are used as an infusion for anemial, hepatitis, diabetes, urinary infections and yellow fever.
In Argentina, leaves used for genital and skin problems; flowers used for bronchitis, cough and pneumonia.
In China, as vermifuge, vulnerary; for tumors.
In Panama, used for treatment of diabetes (See study below).
In Indian folk medicine, used for a variety of liver disorders.
Nutrition
Used mainly for its edible young pods and seeds.
Others
Vegetable food crop ( seeds and pods) in South-East Asia.
As forage or hay.
Branches and stems for basket and fuel. (Source)

Studies
• Clinical studies have reported seed extracts to inhibit red blood cell sickling and potential benefit for people with sickle cell anemia.
Antiplasmodial constituents of Cajanus cajan: Study shows compounds from roots and leaves of CC showed moderately high in vitro activity against Plasmodium falcifarum strain.
Hypocholesterolemic Effect: Study on the stilbenes containing extract-fraction of CC showed a hypocholesterolemic effect possibly through enhancement of hepatic LDL-receptor and cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase expression levels and bile acid synthesis.
Evaluation of traditional medicine: effects of Cajanus cajan L. and of Cassia fistula L. on carbohydrate metabolism in mice: Contradicting its traditional use for diabetes, CC did not have a hypo effect on sugar, aand at higher doses produced a hyperglycemic effect.
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial effect of leaf extracts of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp.) on some human pathogens : Study shows the plants extract to be inhibitory to some bacterial pathogens.
• Antimicrobial / Antifungal: Nigerian study on the antimicrobial effects of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of locally available plants, including C cajan, showerd inhibition against S aureus, P aeruginosa, E coli and C albicans. The extracts of C cajam produced wider zones of inhibition against C albicans.
• Hyperglycemic Effect: Study of the aqueous extract of C cajan leaves showed a hyperglycemic effect, suggesting a usefulness incontrolling hypoglycemia that may be due to excess of insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs.
• Hepatoprotective: Study of the methanol-aqueous fraction of C cajan leaf extract showed it could prevent the chronically treated alcohol induced rat liver damage and presents a promise as a non-toxic herb for therapeutic use in alcohol-induced liver dysfunction.

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kadios.html

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Nutritional Value of Pigeon Pea (Red Gram, Toor, Congo Pea, Gunga Pea)
Pigeon Pea commonly known as Red Gram, Toor, Congo pea or Gunga Pea is yellow colored legume. It is cooked and used as food in day to day life.

Nutrition Facts and Information about Pigeon Pea: Pigeon Pea is rich is potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. It has good amount of iron and selenium and small amount of zinc, copper and manganese.

Vitamin Content of Pigeon Pea: Pigeon Pea has good amount of Vitamin A, Niacin and small amount of thiamin, riboflavin, Vitamin B6, folate and pantothenic acid.

Calorie Content of Pigeon Pea: 100g of Pigeon Pea has 343 calories. Calories from fat are 12.

Health Benefits of Pigeon Pea: Pigeon Pea cures cough, poisoning effect, gas troubles, acidity, stomach pain and piles. It makes a balanced human food, quells swelling of internal organs and with water it cures intoxicating effects.

http://www.organicfacts.net/nutrition-facts/pulses/nutritional-value-of-cowpea-and-pigeon-pea.html

aloevera

With all the talk out there in the aloe industry, what aloe vera is and what makes this healing plant so popular, is still far from the reach of so many that are trying to understand what exactly is in the plant …that gives it it’s healing power.

From the ancient Egyptians, Greek, and the Roman physicians, up to and through the discoveries made in the early twentieth century …the question remains, what and how does this healing plant work its magic!

As can be seen, the “remarkable aloe vera plant” ingredients are in everything. It’s in our soaps, its in our shampoo, its in our hair conditioner, its in our shaving lathers, its in our bath products, our face creams, our body lotions, our toothpastes, our liniments, our body powders, our cologne …not only is it used in everything we put on our body …but its also found its way to internal uses with dramatic medical breakthrough from A to Z.

Listed below are just a few:

  • A. Arthritis, allergies, abrasions, asthma, acne, acid indigestion, anemia.
  • B. Bad breath, burns, boils, bursitis, blisters, burses, bronchitis, bowel regularity, body cleanser, bladder infections, blood pressure.
  • C. Candida, cancer, cankers sores, cold sores, cuts, colic, cradle cap, chapped/chaffed skin and lips.
  • D. Dermatitis, dandruff, dry skin, denture sores, diaper rash, dishpan hands, dysentery, diabetes, depression, decubitous ulcers.
  • E. Edema, epidermises, Epstein-Barr virus, exanthema, eczema.
  • F. Fever blisters, fungus, feline leukemia, fungus infection.
  • G. Genital herpes, gingivitis, glaucoma gangrene, gout.
  • H. Heat rash, hemorrhoids, heartburn, herpes zoster.
  • I. Impetigo, inflamed joints, insomnia, ingrown toenails, indigestion, insect bites.
  • J. Jaundice, joints.
  • K. Kidney infection, keratosis follicularis.
  • L. Leprosy, laryngitis, lupus, liver ailments, leukemia, lupus.
  • Sounds like good news, doesn’t it? That could be a yes and a no.
  • M. Multiple sclerosis, moles, mouth ulcers, muscle cramps/strains.
  • N. Nausea of all kinds.
  • O. Onycolysis, odor control of chronic ulcers, oral disorders.
  • P. Pin worms, psoriasis, prostrates, poison ivy/oak, pancreas.
  • Q. Quality of life (enhance the immune system).
  • R. Razor burns, radiation burns, rashes.
  • S. Strains to joints and ligaments, stings, styes, seborrhea, stretch marks, sore throat, shingles, staph infections, sunburn, sciatic nerve, sickle cell disease.
  • T. Torn and bruised muscles, turf burns, tonsillitis, tendonitis, tuberculosis, tumors.
  • U. Ulcerations of all kinds, urticaria, ulcers (peptic and duodenal).
  • V. Vaginitis, venereal sores, venous stasis, varicose veins.
  • W. Wind burns, wounds of all kinds, warts.
  • X. X-ray burns.
  • Y. Yeast infections in humans and animals.
  • Z. Zoster (shingles)

First, if all these statements are true (and they are) there is the small matter of the efficacy and quality of the aloe vera that is used. Then we have to look at the matter of how much is really real aloe, how much is water and whether or not the Aloe used has been properly stabilized.

There’s that word again, stabilization!! And rightly so, it’s the key word when dealing with the healing power of the plant. We will cover stabilization in an article of its own in the near future …but in the meantime, when using an aloe product, just make sure that its been properly stabilized. Know your supplier.

Back to the plant now and clarify just what makes the aloe vera plant so effective, and why some feel there are some “secrets” about it that is still known to only a select few.

Essentially, the aloe vera plant contains two juices …in the tubular found next to the yellow viscous sap in the cells just beneath the think green rind of the leaf and the gel fillet, which serves as the water storage organ.

The tubules hold the yellow sap that contains what is known as the anthraquinones, mostly aloin, which is best known as a potent laxative, (seldom used in modern times).

The gel fillet of the aloe leaf actually contains about 99.5% water, and makes the liquid usable as a beverage and the primary substance of so many kinds of treatment compounds.

So, understandably, the most effective Aloe Vera compounds available today are formulated to emphasize the positive aspects of the leaf gel fillet, while minimizing the presence of aloin and other “purging” anthraquinines.

Properties

The most oftenly used substance from this herb is the aloe gel, a thick viscid liquid found in the interior of the leaves. The leaves are used in the treatment of burns and the aloine – a bitter milky yellowish liquid is used as a laxative. The herb contains: 20 minerals (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Chromium , Selenium), 12 vitamins (A, B, C, E, folic acid), 20 aminoacids from the 22 which are necessary to the human body, over 200 active components including enzymes and polysaccharides. All the active substances enumerated before contribute to the therapeutical value of the herb. We shall move on to presenting the main effects that the herb has over the human body: it toughens up the immune system owing to the 23 peptides contained by the aloe vera, it accelerates and regulates the methabolism, purifies the human body from toxins, bringing about a feeling of calm. Moreover, aloe vera has an antiseptic effect (by distroying the bacterias, viruses and fungi), disinfectant capabilities and can also stimulate the cell-renewing process. Aloe vera nourishes and supports the digesting of aliments. Cutting across the human organism, aloe vera manages to bring the human body to a general balanced state.

Additional data from other source.

Aloe Vera contains over 75 known active ingredients (and probably many more). Also included are 19 of the 20 amino acids required by the human body and 7 of the 8 essential amino acids (that the body cannot make), as well as vitamins and minerals. There are 20 “critical” Amino Acids in human metabolism, but the body can only make 12, the other 8 have to be obtained from food. These are Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Valine, and Tryptophan.

Aloe Vera contains also contain useful enzymes like Amylase, Bradykinase, Catalase, Cellulase, Lipase, Oxidase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Proteolytiase, Creatine Phosphokinase, Carboxypeptidase. Most of these are beneficial to human metabolism.

Lignin gives Aloe Vera its penetrating powers, but is not considered to have any other benefit.

Aloe Vera contains important minerals like Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Potassium, Phosphorous, Sodium, and Zinc.

As most of us know that the mono-saccharides are the familiar glucose and fructose. It is believed that the more complex long-chain sugars are the poly-saccharides give Aloe Vera its unique healing and immuno-stimulating properties.

Aloe Vera contains useful vitamins. These include A (beta-carotene and retinol), B1 (thiamine), B2 ( riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cyanocobalamin), C (ascorbic acid), E (tocopherol) and Folic Acid.

Salicylic Acid, a substance similar to aspirin that can help reduce fever and inflammation is also found in Aloe vera. It also contains Saponins and Sterols. Saponins are natural soapy substances that have both cleansing and antiseptic properties while Sterols are naturally occurring plant steroids with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic properties.

Treatments

Aloe vera has proved its efficiency from the simplest allergies to the treatment of wounds and skin infections and even to its usage in alleviating more serious afflictions. With the help of this herb a wide variety of internal and external afflictions are controlled, like: asthma, virosis, arthritis, arthrosis, gingivitis, bronchitis, pharyngitis, intestinal inflamations, constipations, obesity, sprains, muscle strains, cutaneous inflamations. The efficiency of the herb was also proven in the cases of anemia, deficiency illnesses, insomnia and depressions and the B-sisterole from the Aloe vera brings about the lowering of the cholesterol level. Also, this herb is used for controlling the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, diabetes, hepatitis and pancreatitis and multiple sclerosis.

The juice of Aloe Vera can be extracted by cutting the leaf, collecting the juice and then evaporating it. The juice has many benefits when drunk. This is partially due to the fact that it contains twelve vitamins (including A, B1, B6, B12, C and E), nineteen amino acids and over 20 minerals, which most of these are essential to the body.

In Ayurveda, the Indian health practice, Aloe Vera is known as Kumari (‘the princess’) because of its positive effect on the menstrual cycle and female reproductive system.

It is also known for its ability to clean the liver and protect the digestive system by reducing intestinal inflammation.
Overall, Aloe Vera can be used for cosmetics and healing the skin, or when consumed, as a potent cleansing and rejuvenating tonic that is very nutrient rich and beneficial to the body.

Additional data from other source.

Salicylic Acid, a substance similar to aspirin that can help reduce fever and inflammation is also found in Aloe vera. It also contains Saponins and Sterols. Saponins are natural soapy substances that have both cleansing and antiseptic properties while Sterols are naturally occurring plant steroids with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic properties.

– Studies have shown that aloe vera speeds the healing process, particularly in burns, including those from radiation. It is also used by dermatologists to speed healing after facial dermabrasion, which helps remove scars from the top most layers of the skin. The other health benefits from the use of aloe vera include helping to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactricidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings.

– Aloe Vera possesses incredible moisturizing properties. Studies show that Aloe Vera improves the skin’s ability to hydrate itself, aids in the removal of dead skin cells and has an effective penetrating ability that helps transport healthy substances through the skin.

– Aloe vera is also known to help slow down the appearance of wrinkles as it can actively repair the damaged skin cells that cause the visible signs of aging. Components of Aloe Vera have been found to reverse degenerative skin changes by stimulating collagen and elastin synthesis.

– Dermatologist James Fulton, M.D., of Newport Beach, California, uses topical aloe in his practice to speed wound healing. “Any wound we treat, whether it’s suturing a cut or removing a skin cancer, heals better with aloe vera on it,” he states.

– Top nutritionalists, around the world, recommend the use of Aloe Health Drinks to aid digestion, and many patients experience relief in the symptoms of problems such as Irritable Bowel Sydrome and Crohn’s disease.

– Aloe Vera is believed to reduce severe joint and muscle pain associated with arthritis, as well as pain related to tendinitis and injuries. When applied directly to the area of pain, Aloe Vera penetrates the skin to soothe the pain.

Aloe Vera is considered as a miraculous plant by some for even hair loss treatment. It is assumed that no other plant more closely matches the human body’s biochemistry, hence, an excellent treatment for hair loss. It has anti-inflammatory properties of and therfore helps in fighting against Androgenetic Alopecia.

dandelion5227

Nutritional
Used by some as salad component.
A rich source of vitamins A, B, C and D as well as minerals.

Folkloric
• Its multiplicity of uses rates it a herbal cure-all, especially for the treating hepato-biliary disease and as a diuretic.
• in Europe, widely used for gastrointestinal ailments. It is taken as broth with leaves of sorrel and egg yolk for chronic liver congestion.
• Used for its gently laxative effect and as bitter tonic in atonic dyspepsia.
• Promotes appetite and digestion.
• Root preparation used for a variety of conditions: fevers, diabetes, eczema, scurvy, bowel inflammation.
• Pounded poultice of leaves applied to wounds and cuts.
• As a drink: 20 gms of root to a cup of boiling water, take 3-5 glasses a day.
• Juice of the stalk used to remove warts.
• Powdered dried roots used with coffee, and a substitute for coffee when roasted and powdered.
• Extract of dandelion used as remedy for fevers and chills.
• Infusion used to treat anemia, jaundice and nervousness.
• Decoction of root herb taken for scrofula, eczema, scurvy and various skin eruptions.
• Used for eczema and acne.
• Native American Indians have used infusions and decoctions of the root and herb for kidney diseases, dyspepsia and heartburn.
• Traditional Arabian medicine has used it for liver and spleen diseases.
• Chinese medicine used it for hepatitis,bronchitis, pneumonia, as a topical compress for mastitis.

Excerpts from other source:

Dandelion Herbal use and Medicinal Properties

The whole plant is used as a medicinal herb internally and externally.

External Uses

The fresh juice of Dandelion is applied externally to fight bacteria and help heal wounds. The plant has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphococcus aureus, pneumococci, meningococci, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, C. diphtheriae, proteus. The latex contained in the plant sap can be used to remove corns and warts.

Internal Uses

Dandelion is also used for the treatment of the gall bladder, kidney and urinary disorders, gallstones, jaundice, cirrhosis, hypoglycemia, dyspepsia with constipation, edema associated with high blood pressure and heart weakness, chronic joint and skin complaints, gout, eczema and acne. As a tonic, Dandelion strengthens the kidneys. An infusion of the root encourages the steady elimination of toxins from the body. Dandelion is a powerful diuretic but does not deplete the body of potassium.

Research is revealing that the many constituents of Dandelion including Taraxacin, Taraxacoside, Inulin, Phenolic acids, Sesquiterpene lactones, Triterpenes, Coumarins, Catortenoids and Minerals, mainly Potassium and calcium, are very valuable in curing a number of disorders and illnesses. Dandelion is traditionally used as a tonic and blood purifier, for constipation, inflammatory skin conditions, joint pain, eczema and liver dysfunction, including liver conditions such as hepatitis and jaundice.

Other Uses

When placed in a paper bag with unripe fruit, the flowers and leaves of Dandelion release ethylene gas ripening the fruit quickly. A liquid plant food is made from the root and leaves. A dark red dye is obtained from Dandelion root. A cosmetic skin lotion made from the appendages at the base of the leaf blades distilled in water, is used to clear the skin and is effective in fading freckles.

Main sources:

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Dandelion.html
http://altnature.com/gallery/Dandelion.htm

mulberry

Nutritional & Herbal Properties

Examples of mulberry’s medicinal properties are reducing blood serum glucose, lowering blood cholesterol and lipids levels, fighting arterial plaques and antiphlogistic, diuretic and expectorant effects. Various compounds present in mulberry that attribute to such therapeutic benefits are GABA, phytosterol, DNJ, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, etc. The nutritional values of 100g dry mulberry leafs are: Ca 2,699mg., Fe 44mg., Na 3.4mg., K 3,101mg., beta carotine 7.4mg., vitamin A 4,230 IU, vitamin B1 0.6mg., vitamin B2 1.4mg., vitamin C 32mg., and fiber 52g.

Mulberry Facts

Mulberry has been cultivated and used for around 5,000 years. There were four main varieties: black, red, white, mountain or wild mulberry. Over centuries, there have been over a hundred varieties and many hundreds more local sub-varieties. Because of its diversity, you can find a mulberry tree in almost any altitudes and climates in the world.

For thousands of year, mulberry trees have been cultivated for silk production because silk worms are fed on mulberry leaves. Often, human beings and animals also appreciate mulberry for its fruits and leaves. The berries are consumed fresh, in juice or preserves (like mulberry jam). Mulberry young leaves and stems are yummy vegetable. It also has medicinal properties in infusions such as mulberry leaf tea. Not until the past few decades, scientists started to pay great attention to the medicinal and nutritional qualities of mulberry plants.

There have been researches studying the components and benefits of mulberry leaves for human and animal consumption and pharmaceutical purposes. Studies found that mulberry leaves contain 15%-28% of protein, with essential amino acids, depending on varieties. Studies find that the leaves and young stems are high in mineral content and have no anti-nutritional factors or toxic compounds. Mulberry leaves have typical calcium content around 1.8-2.4% and phosphorus 0.14-0.24%. The values of potassium in leaves are 1.90-2.87% and 1.33-1.53% in young stems, and magnesium 0.47-0.63% and 0.26-0.35% in leaves and stems respectively. Indian scientists have suggested the use of the powdered of white mulberry leaves as a nutritious ingredient for paratha, one kind of Indian breads. In Korea, Japan and Thailand, mulberry fruit and leaves are used as functional food such as ice-cream and noodles, containing powdered mulberry leaves as an ingredient.

The use of the mulberry-leaf powder in ice-cream showed reducing of blood glucose level in consumers, instead of rising. Hence, mulberry-leaf powder could be used in a food item that contains a sugar content in order to maintain the blood sugar level. Reducing the blood serum glucose is only one of the healthy properties of mulberry mentioned in several traditional herbal books like the ‘Shin Nou Honzou Gyou’ (the Chinese original academic herbal book) ‘Kissa Youjouki’ written by Eisai Zen Monk in Japan, and the old Latins and folk medicine scripts.

Indigenous medicinal practitioners, for centuries, have used different parts of mulberry plant for treating diseases and symptoms such as high-blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and lipids levels, arterial plaques, diuresis, diabetes, constipation, cough-phlegm, cold, anemia, etc. Scientific researches have confirmed these healing qualities of mulberry plant. Several clinical studies found that mulberry leaf contains GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid), phytosterol, DNJ (Dioxiogirimycin), vitamins and minerals. GABA helps maintain the normal blood pressure. Phytosterol helps reduce cholesterol in blood vessels. DNJ helps reduce sugar in the blood stream: lowers the risk of getting heart disease. DNJ also stimulates the blood circulation and increases the fluid in the body.

A 5-year research conducted in Kanagawa, Japan found that mulberry leaves have various preventive effects on adult diseases. Some of the effects are:

  • Suppressing hypertension
  • Lowering cholesterol level
  • Preventing cancer (liver)
  • Reducing level of blood sugar
  • Suppressing mutagenesis of carcinogens.
Nutritional Value of Mulberry
  • Carbohydrate (in the form of sugars, mainly glucose and fructose) – 7.8 to 9.2%
  • Protein (with essential amino acids) – 15% to 28%
  • Fatty acids like linoleic, stearic, and oleic acids – 0.4 to0.5%
  • Malic acid, producing sour taste – 1.1 to1.9%
  • Fiber – 0.9 to1.4%
  • Calcium – 1.8 to 2.4%
  • Phosphorus – 0.14 to 0.24%
  • Potassium – 1.90 to 2.87% in leaves, 1.33 to1.53% in young stems
  • Magnesium – 0.47 to 0.63% in leaves, 0.26 to 0.35% in young stems
Health & Nutrition Benefits of Eating Mulberry
  • Mulberry can balance internal secretions and enhance immunity. It promotes proper body fluid production. People suffering from body fluid deficiency could take ten grams of mulberry daily with water.
  • Mulberry is useful for the persons who use their eyes a lot during work. Regular consumption of mulberry strengthens eyesight.
  • Presence of nutritious elements like minerals and vitamins in mulberry helps in curing chronic diseases.
  • Mulberry is helpful for proper gastric juice secretion.
  • Regular use of Mulberry enhances appetite, and also improves the ability for digesting and assimilating.
  • Mulberry could be used to fight problems like chronic gastritis and chronic hepatitis.
  • Regular consumption of mulberry juice would be helpful in curing health problems like anemia, pallor, dizziness, heart-palpitations and insomnia.
  • Persons with graying hair can also get benefited by regular intake of Mulberry. Mulberry juice applied directly on head also promotes healthy growth of hair and blackening.
  • Nutritious value of Mulberry enriches the blood and in the process, soothes the nerves.
  • Mulberry could be helpful in promoting the metabolism of alcohol.
  • Mulberry helps in containing hypertension.
  • Regular intake of Mulberry strengthens body parts like liver and kidney.
  • Mulberry is helpful in treating constipation.
  • Mulberry is instrumental in eliminating abdominal distention.
  • Intake of mulberry juice after any surgery is restorative.
  • Mulberry is helpful in recuperating after long-time sickness.
  • Consumption of Mulberry after childbirth is good for women’s health.
  • Use of Mulberry keeps low cholesterol level in the body.
  • Mulberry can suppress mutagenesis of carcinogens.
  • Regular use of Mulberry prevents cancer of liver.
  • Mulberry is helpful in reducing level of blood sugar.

Mulberry leaf powder contains full spectrium chemicals activities in pharmaceutical applications:

Ace-inhibitor activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-) epigallocatechin, afzelin, amentoflavone, astragalin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, zinc.

Aldose-reductase-inhibitor activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, 6-(pentadecyl)-salicylic-acid, acacetin, amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, astragalin, daucosterol, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, luteolin, p-coumaric-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, vanillic-acid.

Antihiv activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, opcs, procyanidin, quercetin, tannin.

Antiacne activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, anacardic-acid, beta-carotene, linoleic-acid, pufa, selenium, thymol, zinc.

Antiaging activity:
apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, bilobalide, chromium,
quercetin.

Antialzheimeran activity:
choline, quercetin, thiamin, zinc.

Antianginal activity:
magnesium, niacin.

Antianxiety activity:
calcium, magnesium, tryptophan.

Antiarrhythmic activity:
apigenin, ginkgolide-b, magnesium, potassium, protocatechuic-acid, quercitrin.

Antiarteriosclerotic activity:
histidine, linoleic-acid, silicon.

Antiarthritic activity:
ascorbic-acid, copper, linoleic-acid, magnesium, pantothenic-acid, quercetin, thymol.

Antiasthmatic activity:
ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolide-c, ginkgolides, magnesium, opcs, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,

Antiatherogenic activity:
luteolin, opcs, rutin.

Antiatherosclerotic activity:
ascorbic-acid, calcium, chromium, citric-acid, lutein, magnesium, malic-acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin,
thymol.

Antibiotic activity:
cysteine, opcs, procyanidin, prodelphinidin.

Anticancer activity:
alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, butyric-acid, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, rutin, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Anticancer (lung) activity:
alpha-carotene, apigenin, beta-sitosterol.

Anticarcinogenic activity:
(-)-epigallocatechin, luteolin.

Anticarcinomic (breast) activity:
quercetin

Anticataract activity:
ascorbic-acid, cysteine, luteolin, methionine, quercetin, quercitrin, riboflavin, rutin, zinc.

Anticoagulant activity:
(+)-catechin, citric-acid, d-catechin.

Anticoronary activity:
beta-carotene, linoleic-acid, magnesium, selenium, zinc.

Antidepressant activity:
ascorbic-acid, calcium, magnesium, phenylalanine, potassium,
quercetin, tryptophan.

Antidiabetic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, choline, chromium, copper, fiber, fructose, glucomannan, magnesium, manganese, pinitol, quercetin, rutin, xylose, zinc.

Antiedemic activity:
amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, ginkgetin, glucose, opcs, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin, quercitrin,
rutin, sciadopitysin.

Antiestrogenic activity:
apigenin, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, quercetin.

Antifatigue activity:
pantothenic-acid, potassium, thiamin, vanillic-acid.

Antiflu activity:
ergosterol, p-cymene, quercetin, quercitrin.

Antiglaucomic activity:
ascorbic-acid, magnesium, rutin.

Antihepatotoxic activity:
ascorbic-acid, glucose, p-coumaric-acid, protocatechuic-acid,
quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, stigmasterol, tannin.

Antiinflammatory activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, copper, ginkgetin, ginkgolides, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin,
kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, magnesium, mufa, myricetin, oleic-acid, opcs, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,
quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside, quercitrin, rutin, sciadopitysin,
stigmasterol, thymol, vanillic-acid.

Antileukemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, astragalin, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, kaempferol, luteolin, p-coumaric-acid, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, selenium, vanillic-acid.

Antimelanomic activity:
apigenin, beta-ionone, luteolin, quercetin, rutin, selenium, thymol.

Antimigraine activity:
ascorbic-acid, magnesium, riboflavin, thiamin, tryptophan.

Antimutagenic activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, acacetin, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-eudesmol, beta-sitosterol, citric-acid, kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, nonacosane, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin,
tannin.

Antiobesity activity:
ascorbic-acid, chromium, fiber, opcs, zinc.

Antioxidant activity:
(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, alanine, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, bilobalide, bilobetin, campesterol, cysteine, gamma-tocopherol, ginkgetin, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolide-c, ginkgolide-j, ginkgolides, histidine, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol,
lauric-acid, lutein, luteolin, methionine, myricetin, myristic-acid, opcs, p-coumaric-acid, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, palmitic-acid, proanthocyanidins, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, sciadopitysin, selenium, shikimic-acid,
stigmasterol, sucrose, tannin, thymol, tryptophan, vanillic-acid.

Antiparkinsonian activity:
ascorbic-acid, methionine, niacin, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine.

Antiprostaglandin activity:
(+)-catechin, anacardic-acid, beta-sitosterol, ginkgoic-acid,
ginkgolic-acid, tryptophan.

Antirheumatic activity:
thymol, tryptophan, zinc.

Antisickling activity:
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic-acid,asparagine, glycine, homoserine, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, phenylalanine, vanillic-acid.

Antispasmodic activity:
apigenin, daucosterol, ginkgetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-rhamnoglucoside, luteolin, niacin, p-coumaric-acid, potassium, protocatechuic-acid,quercetin, quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside, quercitrin, rutin,shikimic-acid, thymol, valerianic-acid.

Antistress activity:
apigenin, beta-carotene, gamma-aminobutyric-acid.

Antistroke activity:
magnesium, proanthocyanidins.

Antithrombotic activity:
anacardic-acid, bilobol, cardanol, ginkgolides.

Antitumor activity:
anacardic-acid, apigenin, beta-carotene, beta-ionone, bilobol,
butyric-acid, citric-acid, cysteine, daucosterol, fiber, ginkgoic-acid, ginkgolic-acid, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, luteolin, malic-acid, p-coumaric-acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, selenium, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Antitumor (breast) activity:
apigenin, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, lutein, quercetin, selenium, zeaxanthin.

Antitumor (colon) activity:
beta-carotene, lutein, luteolin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin.

Antitumor (lung) activity:
apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, quercetin, selenium.

Antitumor (skin) activity:
apigenin, luteolin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin,

Antitumor (brain) activity:
luteolin, selenium.

Antitumor-promoter activity:
isoquercitrin, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, shikimic-acid, tannin, vanillic-acid.

Antiulcer activity:
(+)-catechin, amentoflavone, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-eudesmol cysteine, elemol, fiber, ginkgolide-b, glycine,
histidine, kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, tannin, threonine, tyrosine, zinc.

Antiviral activity:
(-)-epicatechin, amentoflavone, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, bilobetin, ergosterol, ginkgetin, kaempferol, lauric-acid, luteolin, myricetin, nonacosane, opcs, p-cymene, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin, protocatechuic-acid, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, stigmasterol, tannin.

Anxiolytic activity:
apigenin, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, glutamic-acid.

Cancer-preventive activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alanine, alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene, beta-ionone, beta-sitosterol, cysteine, d-catechin, fiber, glycine, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, methionine, mufa, myricetin, myristic-acid, niacin, oleic-acid, opcs, p-coumaric-acid, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, pantothenic-acid,
quercetin, quercitrin, riboflavin, rutin, selenium, serine, shikimic-acid, stigmasterol, succinic-acid, tannin, tyrosine, vanillic-acid.

Cardiotonic activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, d-catechin, quercitrin.

Cosmetic activity:
behenic-acid, myristic-acid, stearic-acid.

Estrogenic activity:
apigenin, beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, stigmasterol.

Hepatoprotective activity:
(+)-catechin, acacetin, beta-eudesmol, beta-sitosterol, choline, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, linoleic-acid, luteolin, methionine, niacin, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin, tannin, zeaxanthin.

Hypocholesterolemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, beta-ionone, beta-sitosterol, calcium, campesterol, chromium, copper, fiber, ginkgoic-acid, glucomannan, linoleic-acid, luteolin, magnesium, mufa, oleic-acid, rutin, stearic-acid, stigmasterol.

Hypotensive activity:
alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, ascorbic-acid, astragalin, calcium, choline, chromium, fiber, gamma-aminobutyric-acid,
isoquercitrin, kaempferol, magnesium, quercitrin, rutin, tryptophan, zinc.

Hypoglycemic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, ascorbic-acid, beta-sitosterol, chromium, daucosterol, manganese, myricetin, niacin, quercetin, quercitrin, tryptophan.

Immunostimulant activity:
(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, ascorbic-acid,
astragali, beta-carotene, phosphoru, protocatechuic-acid, selenium, zinc.

Insulinogenic activity:
(-)-epicatechin, chromium, magnesium, quercetin, zinc.

Inotropic activity:
apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin.

Neuroprotective activity:
bilobalide, ginkgolide-a, ginkgolide-b, ginkgolides, kaempferol, quercetin.

Pituitary-stimulant activity:
arginine

Roborant activity:
aspartic-acid

Sunscreen activity:
apigenin, opcs, rutin.

Vasodilator activity:
(-)-epicatechin, alpha-linolenic-acid, apigenin, arginine, ascorbic-acid, calcium, fiber, ginkgetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, magnesium, myricetin, niacin,potassium,
proanthocyanidins, quercetin, rutin.

Sedative activity:
apigenin, beta-eudesmol, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, niacin,
p-cymene, stigmasterol, thymol, tryptophan.
N.B. If you are the author of this article just feel free to write me so that I can quote you or make your website as reference.

Sapan

Folkloric
Decoction of wood and bark used for tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, postpartum tonic, skin infections. and anemia.
Seeds used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.
Decoction of wood used postpartum as tonic.

Others
Chiefly used as a dyewood, popular for coloring native fabrics.
In some parts of the Quezon province, a popular colorant for the coconut liquer, lambanog.

Studies
Antimicrobial: Aqueous extract study showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA) as well MRSA and suggests a potential to restore the effectiveness of B-lactam antibiotics against MRSA.
Immunosuppressive component: Brazilein, an important immunosuppressive component of CS showed inhibition of T cell proliferation and suppress mice humoral immune response.
Antioxidant: Study results showed significant antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extracts.
Anticonvulsant: Study of aqueous MeOH extracts isolated pure compounds sappanchalcone and brazilin which showed remarkable anticonvulsant activity.
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors: Study of MeOH extract of Vietnamese CS isolated neoprotosappanin and protosappanin A dimethyl acetal which showed xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity comparable to allopurinol.
Anti-allergic: Study of extracts of CS showed potent inhibitory activity against B-hexosaminidase release as marker of degranulation in rat basophilic leukemic cells. Among the compounds tested, sappanchalcone showed the most potent anti-allergic effect.
Cardioactive effects of Brazilein: Brazilein obtained from CS ethanol extracts showed a positive inotropic action with little effect on heart rate and coronary perfusion, an effect achieved through inhibition of Na-K-ATPase system.

Suggested Readings

(1) Inhibitory effects of Caesalpinia sappan on growth and invasion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 91, Issue 1, March 2004, Pages 81-87 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.11.017
(2) Brazilein, an important immunosuppressive component from Caesalpinia sappan L. / International Immunopharmacology
Vol 6, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 426-432 / doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2005.09.012
(3) Antioxidant Activity of Caesalpinia sappan Heartwood / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 26 (2003) , No. 11 1534
(4) Anticonvulsant compounds from the wood of Caesalpinia sappan L. / Archives of Pharmacal Research. Vol 23, Number 4 / August, 2000 / DOI 10.1007/BF02975445
(5) Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors from the Heartwood of Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan / Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 53 (2005) , No. 8 984
(6) Anti-allergic activity of principles from the roots and heartwood of caesalpinia sappan on antigen-induced -hexosaminidase release / Phytotherapy Research
(7) Study on Cardioactive Effects of Brazilein /

Excerpts from other source:

General Uses: The water kept in Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Sappan lignum) heartwood is being used in some parts of Kerala as herbal drinking water for its antithirst, blood purifying, antidiabetic, improvement of complexion and several other properties. The use of heartwood as a colouring agent for liquor, wine, meat, fabric, etc. is well established. It has the potential to hit the market as a safe natural colouring agent with good medicinal value for food products, beverages and pharmaceuticals. Sappan is official in India and the Eastern Colonies for use in place of logwood as an astringent. Seeds used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.

Medicinal Uses: Used for purifying blood, quenching thirst, cures jaundice and cough. Good for respiratory ailments, cures wound. As it has medicinal properties similar to Pterocarpus Santalinus it is used in place of this. Its flower is used as a base in fairness creams. It has a capacity to cure Blood Pressure, Heart diseases. The seeds of the plant are used for Stomach aches, and Nervous disorders. This plant is used as a main ingredient in Herbal drinks, widely used in Kerala, and other parts of the country. Indications for treatment include amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, blood stasis after delivery; pricking pain in the chest and abdomen, traumatic swelling and pain. Decoction of wood and bark used for tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, postpartum tonic, and for skin infections.

General Uses: The water kept in Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Sappan lignum) heartwood is being used in some parts of Kerala as herbal drinking water for its antithirst, blood purifying, antidiabetic, improvement of complexion and several other properties. The use of heartwood as a colouring agent for liquor, wine, meat, fabric, etc. is well established. It has the potential to hit the market as a safe natural colouring agent with good medicinal value for food products, beverages and pharmaceuticals. Sappan is official in India and the Eastern Colonies for use in place of logwood as an astringent. Seeds used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.

Medicinal Uses: Used for purifying blood, quenching thirst, cures jaundice and cough. Good for respiratory ailments, cures wound. As it has medicinal properties similar to Pterocarpus Santalinus it is used in place of this. Its flower is used as a base in fairness creams. It has a capacity to cure Blood Pressure, Heart diseases. The seeds of the plant are used for Stomach aches, and Nervous disorders. This plant is used as a main ingredient in Herbal drinks, widely used in Kerala, and other parts of the country. Indications for treatment include amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, blood stasis after delivery; pricking pain in the chest and abdomen, traumatic swelling and pain. Decoction of wood and bark used for tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, postpartum tonic, and for skin infections.

Here’s a couple gems culled from the inbox chaff:

“Caesalpinia sappan, known as Sibukaw Tree, treats hepatitis problems. It also includes diabetes.”

Excerpt from reply or comment re sibukaw:

“with regards to sibukaw tree, it grow near our city and is sold by local streetside herbalist as a remedy to build blood. a decoction of the wood pieces are used. my friend told me that it cured a filipino doctor who came home from the u.s. because he was dying of cancer.”

Main sources:

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Sapan.html
http://www.freewebs.com/mhmgs/sappanwood.html

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