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Chemical constituents and characteristics
Amino acids, mucins, mineral salts, starch (32%), vitamins B and C, fixed oil (44%), cucurbitine, acid resin, myosin, vitellin, sugar (4%)
Phytochemical studies indicate two triterpenes, alunsenol and mutiflorenol, with mast cell stabiling effects in rats.
Pulp is a source of vitamins B and C.

• Considered astringent, anthelmintic, aphodisiac, demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge, styptic, tonic.
• Seed is anthelmintic, antiinflammatory.
• Fruit is nutritive, tonic, diuretic, alterative, and styptic.

Parts utilized
Whole fruit with seeds and skin.

Used as vegetable (boiled); sweetened or candied. The fried seeds eaten as a delicacy.
Extracts of Benincasa hispida prevent development of experimental ulcers
• Seeds applied to simple skin eruptions.
• Seeds sans the outer covering used as vermifuge.
• Fruit rind is diuretic; ashes applied to painful wounds.
• Decoction of seed used for vaginal discharges and coughs.
• Fresh juice used as antidote for vegetable poisons.
• In China, popular for its dermatologic and cosmetic applications – for facial blemishes; moisturizing and skin softening use; anti-wrinkle and anti-aging skin properties; preventing sun damage.
• In Japan, kondol is a component of most traditional dermatologic formulations because of its skin regenerative.
• Forms: Tincture or liniments; percolation with propylene glycol or hydro-alcoholic solution.
• In Korea, used for diabetes and kidney problems
• In Ayurveda, used for coughs, epilepsy, asthma, peptic ulcers.
• In India, used for treatment of peptic ulcer: Juice is squeezed out of grated gourd, equal amounts of water is added, taken daily on an empty stomach, with no food intake for 2 to 3 hours. (Source)
• Fruit juice used for insanity, epilepsy.

• Extracts of Benincasa hispida prevent development of experimental ulcers: Used in Ayurveda for peptic ulcers, the study showed extracts of BH may be a natural drug with anti-ulcer activity.
Anti-angiogenic effect of the seed extract of Benincasa hispida Cogniaux: Seed extract of BH supports its anti-angiogenic property through inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation.
Gastroprotective effect of Benincasa hispida fruit extract: Study results were comparable with the omeprazole treated group. Study suggest BH possess significant antiulcer and well as antioxidant property.
EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BENINCASA HISPIDA AGAINST HISTAMINE AND ACETYLCHOLINE INDUCED BRONCHOSPASM IN GUINEA PIGS: The ME of BH showed excellent protection against histamine-induced bronchospasm probably through an antihistamin activty (H1 receptor-antagonism).




Parts utilized


· The juice of the leaves for dyspepsia, asthma, chronic coughs, bronchits, colic, flatulence, rheumatism. The dose is one tablespoonful of the fresh juice every hour for adults and one teaspoonful every two hours, four times daily, for children. As an infusion, 50 to 60 grams to a pint of boiling water, and drink the tea, 4 to 5 glasses a day. For chilldren, 1/2 cup 4 times daily.
· For otalgia (ear aches), pour the fresh, pure juice into the ear for 10 minutes.
· For carbuncles, boils, sprains, felons, painful swellings: Apply the poultice of leaves to the affected area, four times daily.
· For sore throats, a decoction of two tablespoonfuls of dried leaves to a pint of boiling water, taken one hour before or after meals.
· Decoction of leaves is given after childbirth.
• In India, leaves are used traditionally for bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, epilepsy, nephro-cystolithiasi, fever, indigestion and cough.

Recent uses and preparations
Respiratory ailments like cough, asthma and bronchitis: Squeeze juice of the leaves. Take one teaspoon every hour for adults. For children above 2 years old, 3 to 4 teaspoons a day.

• Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) exposed to gamma radiation: Study results establsihed antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective activities and suggests a potential for chemoprevention.
Mast cell stabilization property of Coleus aromaticus leaf extract in rat peritoneal mast cells: Study showed stabilization of mast cells in rat mesenteric tissue and suggests further studies into mast cells with its role in Type 1 hypersensitivity-mediated diseases like asthma and rhinitis.
Antimicrobial Activity Of Coleus aromaticus (Benth) Against Microbes Of Reproductive Tract Infections Among Women : Results suggests the herb could be an ideal choice for treating reproductive tract infections.

Oregano (Scientific name: Origanum vulgare) is also known as Wild Marjoram, Mountain Mint, Origanum, Wintersweet and Winter Marjoram. This erectly spreading plant has strong aromatic characteristics, with leaves and stems that are fleshy. The leaves of oregano are heart-shaped, with toothed edges, and which, grow for up to 9 meters in length. In other countries, the plant is primarily used as a culinary ingredient. However, in countries like the Philippines, Oregano is a known herbal medicine for its strong anti-oxidant properties. Oregano contains a rosmarinic acid compound, thymol, and carvacrol that are responsible for its anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. Oregano also contains flavinoids, triterpenoids, sterols, vitamin C, and vitamin A. Its anti-bacterial properties have been proven by recent studies to treat infections of the reproductive tracts, and which make it ideal to be given to women who have just given birth.

The volatile oils in oregano and its properties are believed to be responsible for slowing the process of spoilage of food and thus minimizing the risk of ingesting harmful bacteria, parasites and fungi.

The anti-oxidant properties of oregano helps fight free radicals in the body that cause cellular damage and accelerate ageing. Free radicals are believed to be involved with many degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis and heart diseases, to name a few.

The most useful parts of this plant are its leaves. The extracts and juices of such are used for asthma, dyspepsia, chronic coughs, bronchitis, and rheumatism. Ear aches have also been proven to be cured by the infusion prepared from its leaves. The leaves relieve painful swellings, boils, and sprains, when their poultices are applied directly to the affected area.

Health Benefits of Oregano:

• Good for cough and cold relief
• Helps prevent degenerative arthritis
• Has Anti-aging properties
• Helps relieve rheumatism and osteoarthritis
• Bronchitis herbal remedy
• Ease asthma attacks
• Relieves upset stomach
• Treatment of urinary tract problems
• Relief for dyspepsia or indigestion
• Healing wounds, insect bites & stings
• Cure for sore throat
• Avoid infections caused by childbirth by taking decoctions of the leaves by the recent mother.
• For general good health

Preparation of Oregano Leaves:

• Boil one cup of fresh leaves in 3 cups of water for 10 to 15 minutes. Drink half a cup 3 times a day for common colds.
• For a concentrate, juice the oregano leaves and take 1 tablespoon every hour to relieve chronic coughs, rheumatism, bronchitis, asthma, and dyspepsia.
• For Insect bites, wounds and stings, apply the leaves as a poultice directly on the afflicted area.
• For sore throat, boil 2 tablespoonfuls of dried oregano leaves in a pint of water, take 2 hours before or after meals.
• To prevent degenerative arthritis & for general good health drink oregano decoction daily.


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