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Kangkong

Parts used
Young leaves and stems

Chemical constituents and properties
• Considered purgative, anthelmintic, antidiabetic.

Uses
Nutritional
Young leaves and shoots eaten raw in salads, or steam and boilded like spinach.
Young stems popular as achara (native pickles) ingredient.
Good sources of iron, calcium, vitamins B and C and amino acids.
Folkloric
Tops are mildly laxative.
The purplish variety used for diabetes because of assumed insulin-like principle it contains.
Juice used as emetic.
Dried latex is purgative.
Poultice of buds used for ringworm.
In Ayurveda, exgtracts of leaves are used for jaundice and nervous debility.
Juice used as emetic in opium and arsenic poisoning.
In Sri Lanka, used for liver disease, eye problems, constipation.

Studies
Hypoglycemic / Anti-Diabetic: (1) Study showed the boiled whole extract of I. aquatica to exert an oral hypoglycemic effect in healthy, male, Wistar rats after a glucose challenge. (2) An aqueous extract of the green leafy vegetable Ipomoea aquatica is as effective as the oral hypoglycaemic drug tolbutamide in reducing the blood sugar levels of Wistar rats.(3) Inhibitory effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracts on glucose absorption using a perfused rat intestinal preparation: Study showed a significant inhibitory effect on glucose absorption. Furthermore, results suggest the inhibition of glucose absorption is not due to the acceleration of intestinal transit. (3) Study showed the consumption of shredded, fresh, edible portion of IA for one week, effectively reduced the fasting blood sugar of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Antioxidant / Antiproliferative: Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) constituents: Study showed the water extract of stems had the highest antiproliferative activity. The ethanol extract of the stems had the highest total phenolic compounds. The ethanol extract of leafves had the highest amount of flavonoids.
Diuretic: Study on the diuretic activity of the methanol extract of Ipomoea aquatica in Swiss albino mice showed good diuretic activty. In all cases, the excretion of electrolytes and urine volue increase was higher than the standard diuretic, furosemide.
Antioxidant: Study of a methanol extract yielded a compound ( 7-O-B-D-glucopyronosyl-dihydromquercetin-3-O-a-D-glucopyranoside) that exhibited antioxidant activity with an EC50 value of 83 and showed very strong lipid peroxidation-inhibitory activirty in a liposome model system.

Source: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kangkong.html

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sweetbasil

Chemical constituents and properties
• The dried leaves contain 0.21–1% essential oil, the major compounds of which are linalool and methyclaviol.
• Some of the other compounds are: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-cymene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, methyl cinnamate, myrcene, quercetin, rutin, tryptophan, safrole.
• Study yielded 14 different anthocyanins: 11 cyanidin-based pigments and 3 peonidin-based pigments.
• Carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, expectorant, febrifuge, diuretic, demulcent, mucilaginous, cooling.

Parts utilized
Leaves, seeds.

Mature fresh leaves are harvested 2 to 3 months after planting. Leaves are picked leaving the branches on the plant to allow it to flower and produce seeds for the next season.

The leaves are air-dried until they crumble when crushed with the fingers. Store in amber colored bottles in a cool, dry place.

Uses
Culinary
The leafy and flowering tops are used as condiment; eaten sparingly in salads.
Folkloric
Cough: Expectorant properties – Take infusion or decoction of herb (9-15 gm of dried herb) or tops as tea.
Leaf juice helpful for expectoration of mucus.
Decoction of leaves also used for hiccups, vomiting and nausea.
Gas pains: Decoction of herb as tea helps to expel wind from bowels.
Snake bites: Crush fresh plant and poultice the bitten wound.
Gonorrhea, using a decoction of the roots and leaves of plants.
Decoction of leaves used as a wash for ulcers.
External contusions.
Used in baths for rheumatic pains.
Ringworm and insect bites: Apply juice of crushed leaves.
Skin ulcers: Decoction of herb as wash.
For delayed menstruation: take the juice of the leaves with water.
Seeds are used in treatment of several eye diseases.
Toothache: Wet small piece of cotton with juice of crushed leaves and insert into tooth cavity.
Postpartum: Decoction of seeds used to decrease postpartum pains; the seeds are mucilaginous.
Poultice of seeds used for buccal sores.
Decoction of seeds also used for constipation.
Acne: Infusion of 3 tsp of dried leaves in 1 cup of boiling water for 20-30 minutes. Apply externally or drink decoction of tea or infusion 3 times daily.
Others
• Oils repel insects (limonene, myrcene, camphor, thymol) and have larvicidal (eugenol and methylclaviol) activity against houseflies and mosquitoes.


Recent uses

Dizziness: crush enough fresh leaves with your fingers and sniff them.
Cough: As decoction boil eight tablespoons of fresh leaves in two glasses of water for 15 minutes or until the liquid is reduced to half. Divide the decoction into eight parts and take one part, three times a day.

Studies
• Aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) decrease platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin in vitro and rats arterio–venous shunt thrombosis in vivo: Results showed Ocimum basilicum to possess an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin resulting in an anti-thrombotic effect in vivo.
Cardiac stimulant activity of Ocimum basilicum Linn. extracts: The study evaluated the cardiac effects of extracts derived from the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum. Results showed the alcoholic extracts exhibited a cardiotonic effect and the aqueous extract produced a B-adrenergic effect.
Antimicrobial Effects of Ocimum basilicum (Labiatae) Extract: Results suggest that O. basilicum extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties against C. albicans and some bacterial pathogens.
Anti-dyspepsia: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled study showed Ocimum basilicum seems to relieve functional dyspepsia in female and young patients with dysmotility.
Anthocyanins in Basil : Purple basils are an abundant source of acylated and glycosylated anthocyanins, a potential source of stable red pigments to the food industry.
Antioxidant: In a study of plants in the Lamiaceae family, the leaves and stems of Ocimum basilicum displayed the highest antioxidant activity.
Antiulcer: Study showed the seed extracts of OB to possess significant anti-ulcer activity against ethanol-induced ulceration in animal models.
Wound-Healing Activity: Wounds treated with honey in combination with OB alcoholic leaf extract and solcoseryl-jelly showed accelerated wound healing compared to honey alone.
• Antiproliferative / Anticancer: A study on the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from 17 thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcioma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines. In the KB cell line, Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil showed the highest anti-proliferative activity in the P388 cell line. The results suggested the potential of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment.

Toxicity
Although known for its medicinal benefits, it contains some potentially dangerous compounds: safrole, rutin, caffeic acid, tryptophan and quercetin.(See: Medicinal Plants for Livestock / Cornell University)

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Balanoy.html

neemtree

Chemical constituents and properties
• From the seed is produced a bitter fixed oil, nimbidin, known as “Oil of Margosa” or neem oil.
• Neem seeds yield a fix oil of glycerides and bitter compounds including nimbin, nimbinin and nimbidol.
• Neem bark and leaves contain tannin and oil.
• Azadirachtin, the insecticide constitutent of the seeds, is biodegradable, non-mutagenic, and nontoxic to birds, fish, and warm-blooded animals. The EPA has approved a neem formulation (Margosan-O) as a pesticide for limited use on nonfood crops
• Antiinflammatory (nimbidin, sodium nimbidate, gallic acid, catechin, polysachharides).
• Antiarthritic, hypoglycemic, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, diuretic, anti-gastric ulcer (nimbidin)
• Antifungal (nimbidin, gedunin, cyclic trisulfide)
• Antibacterial (nimbidin, nimbolide, mahmoodin, margolone, margolonone, isomargolonone)
• Spermicidal (nimbin, nimbidin)
• Antimalarial (nimbolidfe, gedunin, azadirachtin)
• Antitumor (polysaccharides)
• Immunomodulatory (NB-II peptoglycan, gallic acid, epicatechin, catechin)
• Hepatoprotective (aequeous extract of neem leaf)
• Antioxidant (neem seed extract)

Parts used and preparation
Whole plant.
.
Uses
Folkloric
Poultice of leaves for swollen glands, brusies and sprains.
Fresh leaf-tea used for malaria.
Tree and root barks have been used for malaria, jaundice, and for intestinal parasitism.
Edible pulp of the fruit used for hemorrhoids.
Ayurvedic medicine
Leaf- leprosy, intestinal parasites, eye problems, skin ulcers
Bark – pain and fever.
Flower – bile suppression, intestinal worms and phlegm.
Fruit – piles, intestinal worms, urinary disorder, nose bleeding , phlegm, eye problem, diabetes, wounds and leprosy.
Twig – cough, asthma, piles, intestinal worms, spermatorrhoea, urinary disorders, diabetes.
Gum – ringworms,scabies, wounds and ulcers.
Seed pulp and oil- leprosy and intestinal worms.
Others
Young tender branches are chewed for toothbrushing use.
Leaf’s oil is used as a local antiseptic and insecticide.
Neem oil may be useful for gingivitis.
In the rural areas, burning of leaves and seeds used as mosquito repellant.
Neem oil has been shown to possess some spermicidal and contraceptive properties when used intravaginally.
Use of neem oil in animals showed lowering of glucose
Commercial use
Neem extracts used in the manufacture of toothpaste for its antibacterial properties.
Fresh seed oil has a strong garlic odor and is an ingredient for insect sprays.

Studies
• Studies have suggested hypoglycemic, antiulcer, antifertility, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer and antioxidant effects.
• Effect of essential oils from two Nigerian medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida) on growth and aflatoxin B1 production in maize grain by a toxigenic Aspergillus flavus: Oils from A indica completely suppressed aflatoxin synthesis.
Lipid Effects / Antiviral: Effect of Supplemental Garlic and Neem Leaves in Broiler Feeds on Blood Cholesterol, Triglycerids and Antibody Titer: Study showed neem had greater potential than garlic in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides and increasing the antibody titers against viruses.
Anti-ulcer: Mechanism of antiulcer effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract: effect on H+-K+-ATPase, oxidative damage and apoptosis: Study suggests antiulcer activity is achieved by blocking acid secretionn through inhibition of H+K+ATPase and preventing oxidative damage and apoptosis.
Anti-candidal: Anticandidal activity of Azadirachta indica: Study suggested hexane and alcoholic extracts to have anticandidal potential.

Source: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Neem.html

Related Sites:

http://www.discoverneem.com/neem-benefits.html
http://www.articlealley.com/article_766808_17.html
http://herbal-properties.suite101.com/article.cfm/research_supports_value_of_neem_herbal_extracts
http://www.healthypages.co.uk/newsitem.php?news=6070
http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/42953
http://www.goherbalremedies.com/blog/herbal-remedies-by-neem-leaves-margosa/
http://www.neemfoundation.org/neem-articles/neem-in-health.html

turmeric

Turmeric is one of nature’s most powerful healers. The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin. Tumeric has been used for over 2500 years in India, where it was most likely first used as a dye.

The medicinal properties of this spice have been slowly revealing themselves over the centuries. Long known for its anti-inflammatory properties, recent research has revealed that turmeric is a natural wonder, proving beneficial in the treatment of many different health conditions from cancer to Alzheimer’s disease.

Here are 20 reasons to add turmeric to your diet:

1. It is a natural antiseptic and antibacterial agent, useful in disinfecting cuts and burns.

2. When combined with cauliflower, it has shown to prevent prostate cancer and stop the growth of existing prostate cancer.

3. Prevented breast cancer from spreading to the lungs in mice.

4. May prevent melanoma and cause existing melanoma cells to commit suicide.

5. Reduces the risk of childhood leukemia.

6. Is a natural liver detoxifier.

7. May prevent and slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease by removing amyloyd plaque buildup in the brain.

8. May prevent metastases from occurring in many different forms of cancer.

9. It is a potent natural anti-inflammatory that works as well as many anti-inflammatory drugs but without the side effects.

10. Has shown promise in slowing the progression of multiple sclerosis in mice.

11. Is a natural painkiller and cox-2 inhibitor.

12. May aid in fat metabolism and help in weight management.

13. Has long been used in Chinese medicine as a treatment for depression.

14. Because of its anti-inflammatory properties, it is a natural treatment for arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

15. Boosts the effects of chemo drug paclitaxel and reduces its side effects.

16. Promising studies are underway on the effects of turmeric on pancreatic cancer.

17. Studies are ongoing in the positive effects of turmeric on multiple myeloma.

18. Has been shown to stop the growth of new blood vessels in tumors.

19. Speeds up wound healing and assists in remodeling of damaged skin.

20. May help in the treatment of psoriasis and other inflammatory skin conditions.

Turmeric can be taken in powder or pill form. It is available in pill form in most health food stores, usually in 250-500mg capsules.

Once you start using turmeric on a regular basis, it’s fun to find new ways to use it in recipes. My favorite way to use it is to add a pinch of it to egg salad. It adds a nice flavor and gives the egg salad a rich yellow hue.

Contraindications: Turmeric should not be used by people with gallstones or bile obstruction. Though turmeric is often used by pregnant women, it is important to consult with a doctor before doing so as turmeric can be a uterine stimulant.

Eat This!

http://www.healthdiaries.com/eatthis/20-health-benefits-of-turmeric.html

Chemical constituents, characteristics and Pharmacological Effects

Volatile oil, 3-5% – tumerol (alcohol), d-alpha phellandrene, carvone, camphor, curcumone; fat, 3%; starch, 30%; resin; curcumin (pigment).
Pungent and bitter tasting, warming, carminative.
Improves Ch’i circulation.
Anti -contusion.
Yellow orange color comes from yellow pigment in the rhizomes called curcumin.
Believed to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, and anticarcinogenic activity.
Antiinflammatory activity has been compared to topical hydrocortisone.
Antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal.

Uses


Folkloric
· Fevers, dysentery, abdominal pain, flatulence, abdominal spasm, arthritis: Decoction of rhizome as tea.
· Menstrual irregularities
· Contusions and associated painful swelling.
· Antiseptic for wounds: Crush rhizome and apply to wounds.
· Externally, rhizomes are applied to insect bites, ringworm, bleeding.
· Dosage: Decoction of 2 to 6 gms dried material.
• In India, used as antiseptic for cuts. Used for leprosy, liver problems, swelling, insect bites, wounds, whooping cough, pimples. Sweetened milk boiled with tumeric is popular as a remedy for colds and cough.
• In Ayurveda, use as stomach and liver tonic and blood purifier.

Culinary
· Condiment and coloring for food.
• In dried or powdered form, used like ginger.

New Age
· Improves Qi (chi) circulation. Chi is the basis of traditional Eastern medicine. In chinese parlance, chi means ‘spirit.’ In new-age speak, good health is synonymous with free-flowing energy through meridian pathways. A blocked Qi flow is associated with disease or ill-health.

Others
Approved by German health authorities for the treatment of dyspeptic complaints.
Recent uses and preparation
Wounds and swelling
Ointment: Wash the unpeeled ginger. Chop the rhizomes to fill half a glass of water. Sauté with one glass of coconut oil on low heat for five minutes. Place in a clean bottle and label.
Antiseptic for wounds: Extract juice of the fresh rhizome and apply directly on the wound or swelling.
Gas pain in adults: Decoction from thumb-sized rhizome in a glass of water reduced to half.

Studies

• Curcumin Suppresses Metastasis in a Human Breast Cancer Xenograft Model: The dietary administration to mice of curcumin and curcumin plus Taxol significantly decreased the incidence of breast cancer metastasis to the lung. The results indicate that curcumin has a potential for breast cancer therapy.
• Hepatoprotective: The study suggests the ethanolic extract of C. longa has potent hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats and validates its use as a hepatoprotectant agent.
• Antifungal: The study on the ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga exhibited excellent phytotoxic activity against Lemna minor and good antifungal activities against Trichophyton longifusus.
• Antibacterial: Study showed the essential oil fraction from tumeric possesses significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic Staph aureus bacteria and suggests a potential for use of the essential oil as antiseptic in prevention and treatment of bacterial infections.
• Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant: Study of Curcuma longa and Abroma augusta found them to be efficient antioxidants and showed significant reduction in glood glucose. Study showed the combination of herbal extracts showed better efficacy compared to individual plant extracts.

Caution

• Anticoagulation Concerns: Ginger may decrease thromboxane production and cause prolong bleeding time and platelet inhibition. Therefore, should be used with caution by patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Dilaw.html

Therapeutic Uses: Turmeric is beneficial in the treatment of Gallbladder problems, hepatitis, indigestion, infections, lack of appetite, scabies, alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, asthma, athlete’s foot, boils, bursitis, breast cancer, colon cancer, cataracts, colic, dermatitis, diarrhea, eczema, fibrosis, gallstones, gas, hardening of the arteries, heart disease, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, inflammation, intestinal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, jaundice, lack of menstruation, lymph gland problems, menstrual pain, morning sickness, pain, psoriasis, sprains, ulcers, wounds, yeast infections.

It is also being use for the treatment of bruises, for childbirth, eye inflammation, epilepsy, fever, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, itching, ringworm.

Therapeutic Properties: Turmeric contains curcumin and curcuminoids it is a first rate natural remedy for arthritis, it has an anti-inflammatory ingredient that can help alleviate pain. It can also help protect the gallbladder and liver and provide a defense against cancer. Curcumin can also help inhibit the formation of cancer in breast tissue. Experiment on animal shows that curcumin slashed the risk of colon cancer by almost 60%, this phytochemical seems to neutralize cancer-causing compounds, stop cancerous changes in the cells and directly fight substances that enable carcinogens to spread and wreak havoc. Turmeric also triggers better bile flow, which helps digest fats and reduces the risk of gallstones. It also helps generates the secretion of several enzymes that assist the liver in breaking down and metabolizing certain toxic substances. Some of these same phytochemicals inhibit the oxidative damage that allows cholesterol to coagulate and cling to the inside of arteries.

Turmeric /curcumin is about half as effective as corticosteroids, but it doesn’t have bad side effect as corticosteroids, this drug is use for the treatment of arthritis, but they can cause fluid retention and bloating, elevate blood pressure, encourage intestinal bleeding, ulcer formation and increase the risk of osteoporosis.

Direction for use / Dosage: 400 milligrams of a curcumin extract three times a day, 445 milligrams of a standardized supplement 2 to 3 times a day, 1tsp of the dried herb in a cup of warm milk daily, 1tsp to 1 tbsp of a liquid extract divided into several dosages over the course of a day, or 1/8 to ¼ tsp of turmeric tincture 3x a day. Your body will absorbed more curcumin if you take it with lots of black pepper. The pipeline in pepper improves the body’s ability to use turmeric perhaps as much as twentyfold, according to studies. Ginger is also a good companion for turmeric.

Caution: Don’t take turmeric if you have bile duct obstruction, people with gallstones should consult a herb physician before taking this. Excessive dosage of curcuminoids could cause ulcers or cancer and reduce the number of red and white blood cells in the body. Too much intake can also cause hair fall. When buying turmeric, always buy from reputable seller since some species are toxic.

http://hubpages.com/hub/Medicinal-Uses-of-Turmeric-Herb

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